Comparison of adjectives

Definition: When we make comparison between/among two or more persons of things on the basis of quality, quantity, order etc. then this comparison called comparison of adjectives or degree of comparison.

There are three types of degree of comparison

1. Positive degree

2. Comparative degree

3. Superlative degree

1. Positive degree

When we merely describe a person or thing without comparison then it’s called positive degree.

Examples:-

Hamza is a good boy.

Tamanna is an intelligent girl.

Mamun is a healthy person.

Rina is a poor girl.

Hasan is a brilliant student.

2. Comparative degree

When we make comparison between two persons of things then it’s called comparative degree.

Examples:-

Alif is better than Asif.

Kamal is more intelligent than Jamal.

Kajol is nicer than most other girls.

Rina is poorer than Runa.

Joe’s older than Mike.

3. Superlative comparison

When we make comparison in more than two persons or things then, it’s called superlative degree.

Examples:-

Annan is the best girl in the class.

Kabir is the most power writer in our country.

Rina is the poorest girl in the village.

I am the shortest person in my family.

She is the smartest girl in our class.

Rules for forming comparatives and superlatives.

Rule-1: Adjectives with mono syllable, “er/er” is added for comparative form and “est/st” is added for superlative form.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Fine Finer Finest
Close Closer Closest
Nice Nicer Nicest
Hard Harder Hardest
Soft Softer Softest
Deep Deeper Deepest
Light Lighter Lightest
Positive Comparative Superlative
Large Larger Largest
Small Smaller Smallest
New Newer Newest
Old Older Oldest
Black Blacker Blackest
Wise Wiser Wisest
Fool Fooler Foolest

N.B: Adjectives ending with consonant (b, c, d, f, g) and having single vowel just before the consonant, “er” is added for comparative and “est” is added for superlative with double consonant.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Big Bigger Biggest
Glad Gladder Gladdest
Fit Fitter Fittest
Hot Hotter Hottest
Sad Sadder Saddest
Red Redder Reddest
Fat Fatter Fattest
Thin Thinner Thinnest

Rule -2: Adjectives with di-syllable/tri-syllable or multi-syllable, “more” is added for comparative form and “most” is added for superlative form

Positive Comparative Superlative
Ample More ample Most ample
Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful
Expensive More expensive Most expensive
Intelligent More intelligent Most intelligent
Romantic More romantic Most romantic
Famous More famous Most famous
Handsome More handsome Most handsome

Rule-3: Adjectives ending with “Y” and then “Y” is removed and “ier” is added for comparative form “ier” is removed and added “iest” for superlative form.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Lazy Lazier Laziest
Crazy Crazier Craziest
Healthy Healthier Healthiest
Wealthy Wealthier Wealthiest
Heavy Heavier Heaviest
Happy Happier Happiest
Dry Drier Driest
Dirty Dirtier Dirtiest
Busy Busier Busiest
Easy Easier Easiest
Ugly Uglier Ugliest
Angry Angrier Angriest

N.B: add “er” for comparative form and “est” for superlative form when vowel comes before “Y” instead of consonant.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Fay Fayer Fayest
Gay Gayer Gayest
Gray Grayer Grayest

Rule-4: The following are the irregular adjectives.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Bad Worse Worst
Good Better Best
Late Later/latter Latest/last
Out Outer Outset
Up Upper Upper most
Much More Most
Many More Most
Little Less/lesser Least
Fore Former Foremost/first
In Inner Inner most
Old Older/elder Oldest/eldest
Far Farther/further Far/furthest

Rule-5: There are some having two forms of comparative and superlative.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Simple Simpler/ more simple Simplest/most simple
Clever Cleverer/ more clever Cleverest/ more clever
Clear Clearer/ more clear Clearest/ most clear
Narrow Narrower/ more narrow Narrowest /most narrow
Quiet Quitter/ more quiet Quietest/ most quiet
Swallow Swallower/ more swallow Swallowest/ most swallow

Some important features of comparison of adjectives.

First/last

When we discuss more than two persons or things then, we use “first” and “last”.

Tania, Nipa, Niha, Meem, Reemi, and Janaat are good students but first is better than the last.

Last/latest

“Last” indicates, “series, order” and “latest” indicates “recent time”.

Tania is the best students who got GPA-5.00.

We always wait for latest thing.

Latter/later

“Later” is the comparative form of “late” and indicates “time”. “Latter” is the opposite word of “former” and indicates “order, series”. Later is better than nothing.

Nazrul’s later creation is better that makes him famous poet.

The latter parts of this book coming soon.

Among three persons, latter was somewhat lazy.

First/foremost

“First” refers to “order, situation, rank” and “foremost” refers to “best, famous”.

Billal is the first boy in this class.

Lima is the first girl who wins the race.

Humayun Ahmed was the foremost novelist of his time.

Elder/eldest

When we make comparison (in age) between/among two or more persons in a family, we use “elder” for comparative form and “eldest” for superlative form.

Kamal is elder son of his father.

Lima is elder daughter of his family.

Mamun is elder son of Mr. Shahid Ullah.

Kabir is the eldest son of his father.

Jannat, Tania and Nipa are the daughters of Mr. Islam. Nipa is the eldest daughter whereas Tania is elder daughter.

Older/oldest

When we talk about persons/things/ that don’t belong to the same family, we use “older” for comparative form “oldest” for superlative form.

Kabir is older than his friend.

Lima is the oldest employee in this company.

Mr. Musarrof was the oldest p

erson in this village.

Asad is older than Rahat

.

Younger/youngest

When we talk about persons in a family, we use “younger” for comparative and “youngest” for superlative.

Mamun is the youngest son of his father.

Hamza is my younger brother.

Alif is my friend’s younger brother.

Meem is the youngest daughter of his father.

Farther/further

“Farther” indicates “more distance” between two persons/thigs and “further” indicates, “more distance” than “farther”.

Dhaka is farther from Sylhet than Comilla.

We need further information for this case.

This place is farther than Sunapur.

Nearest/next

“Nearest” refers to “close position” and it is the superlative form of “near” and “next” refers to “sequence”.

We will meet on next Monday.

Kari will go to varsity by the next bus.

Niloy is going to the nearest forest.

We can visit the nearest forest for picnic.

Former/latter

When we talk about two persons then, we use “former” for the first persons and “latter” for the second person.

Mr. Mamun and Mayem are good friends.

The former is better than the latter.

These two books are ok but, the former is more interesting than the latter.

Latin adjectives

Senior, junior, inferior, superior, anterior, posterior, prior etc. They are used as comparative and after them, we use “to” instead of “than”.

Tania is junior to me by four years.

Billal is senior to Akash by three years.

Nazrul is superior to Kali Das.

Latin adjectives

Major, minor, interior, exterior, ulterior etc.

They are used “positive degree”.

The major portion of our peoples is illiterate.

The exterior area of our village is very beautiful.

Absolute, complete, chief, excellent, entire, perfect, full, unique, extreme, ideal, round, square, universal etc. These adjectives have no comparative and superlative form.

Humayon has more extreme power. (Incorrect)

Humayon has extreme power. (Correct).

Mothers are the most unique creature. (Incorrect).

Mothers are the unique creature. (Correct).

Prefer

We use “infinitive” after “prefer” when only one verb comes in the sentence but, “gerund” for two verbs.

I prefer to stay alone.

Mamun prefers to go picnic.

I prefers reading to writing.

Jannat prefers gossiping to remaining alone.

Alternative, else, other etc. These words have no comparative form but, we use “than” after them.

I have no alternative than to go there.

He is none else than my brother.

Prefer

Sub. + prefer + gerund + to + gerund.

I prefer walking to swimming.

Would prefer

Sub. + prefer/would prefer + infinitive + rather + than + zero infinitive.

Tania would prefer/prefers to sing rather than dance.

Had rather

Sub. + had rather + zero infinitive + than + zero infinitive.

Nipa had rather die than beg.

Had better

Sub. + had better + zero infinitive + than + zero infinitive.

Jannat had better do this than leave.

Had sooner

Sub. + had sooner + zero infinitive + than + zero infinitive.

Meem had sooner work out math than cry.

Would sooner/rather

Sub. + would sooner/rather + zero infinitive + than + zero infinitive.

Would as soon

Sub. + would as soon + zero infinitive + as + zero infinitive.

Niloy would as soon do it as go away.