Conditional Sentence

Definition: Condition means “Agreement”. So, we can say, a sentence where any condition/agreement can be expressed is called conditional sentence.

Examples:-

If he comes, I will talk to him about my future plan.

If he had gone there, I would have gone there too.

If-clause/open where conditional sentence.

Clauses/sentence where condition expressed is called if-clause/open conditional sentence.

Examples:-

If it is cheap.

If you come.

If I knew it.

Close conditional sentence

Claus/sentence where to condition denoted, but consequences mentioned is called close conditional.

Examples:-

I shall buy it.

I shall go there.

I could inform him.

N:B: We can use “unless/had” instead of “if”.

Types of conditional sentence

There are three types of conditional sentence. They are-

1. Probable of first conditional sentence

2. Improbable or second conditional sentence

3. Impossible of third conditional sentence

1. Probable or first conditional sentence.

Definition: Conditional sentence where it is possible to take place/come true the condition expressed if-clause is called probable or first conditional sentence.

Examples:-

If you come with her, I shall go.

If Sharmin change her mind, I shall help you.

Structure

If + present + comma + present

If you get up early, you have enough time to study.

If he goes there, he gets meet Rahim.

Note: To express habitual fact, scientific explanation of something/scientific consequences/universal truth.

If + present + comma + future.

If I have enough time, I will met you.

If he comes here, I will phone you.

Note: To express certainly

If + present + comma + subject + may/might/can/could + base form of verb + other words.

If it stope raining, we can start playing.

If you wish/like, you can do it.

If they want, they may play.

Note: To express ability (can/could) and to express permission (may/might).

If + present + comma + subject + must + base form of verb + other words.

If you want to make a good result, you must study hard.

If you want to be successful, you must work hard.

Note: To express obligation (must).

If + present + comma + subject + had better + base form of verb + other words.

If they want win the match, they had better do lots of practice.

Note: To express certainty.

If + present + comma + subject + be going to + base form of verb + other words.

If you pass in the examination, I am going to give you a smart mobile phone.

Note: To express decision what will be done in future.

If + present continuous + comma + future.

If he is doing this work, I will help him.

Note: To express certainty.

If + present perfect + comma + future.

If she has loved me, I will love her.

Note: To express certainty.

2. Improbable or second condition sentence

Definition: Conditional sentence where condition expressed in if-clauses is opposite to reality or imaginary and has no change/possibility to be true is called improbable or second conditional sentence.

If I did it, Nipa Would do that.

If I participated in the function, they would participate.

Structure

If + past (were) + comma + subject + would/should + base form of verb + other words.

If I were a king, I would lead a luxurious life.

I he were you, he would kill the man.

Note: To express certainty.

If + past (main) + comma + subject + would/should + base form + verb + other words.

If he worked hard, he would succeed in life.

If they practiced, they would win the match.

Note: To express certainty.

If + past + comma + subject + could + base form of verb + other words.

If I went there, I could win the race.

I you attended there, you could perform well.

Note: To express ability to do something.

If + past + comma + subject + might + base form of verb + other words.

If he met, Mr. Rahim, he might get something.

If they joined with us, they might share this prize.

Note: To express possibility.

If + past continuous + comma + subject + would + base form of verb + other words.

If she was singing, I would go there.

If you were working hard, I would help you.

Note: Express certainty.

2. Improbable or second condition sentence

Definition: Conditional sentence where condition expressed in if-clauses is opposite to reality or imaginary and has no change/possibility to be true is called improbable or second conditional sentence.

If I did it, Nipa Would do that.

If I participated in the function, they would participate.

Structure

If + past (were) + comma + subject + would/should + base form of verb + other words.

If I were a king, I would lead a luxurious life.

I he were you, he would kill the man.

Note: To express certainty.

If + past (main) + comma + subject + would/should + base form + verb + other words.

If he worked hard, he would succeed in life.

If they practiced, they would win the match.

Note: To express certainty.

If + past + comma + subject + could + base form of verb + other words.

If I went there, I could win the race.

I you attended there, you could perform well.

Note: To express ability to do something.

If + past + comma + subject + might + base form of verb + other words.

If he met, Mr. Rahim, he might get something.

If they joined with us, they might share this prize.

Note: To express possibility.

If + past continuous + comma + subject + would + base form of verb + other words.

If she was singing, I would go there.

If you were working hard, I would help you.

Note: Express certainty.

3. Impossible or third conditional sentence

Definition: Conditional sentence where condition expressed in if-clause was supposed to do in the past, but it didn’t and so there is no chance/possibility to be true or to do at present. Such conditional sentence is called impossible or third conditional sentence.

If + past perfect + comma + subject + would have + verb¬3 + other words.

If my father had been alive, he would have been a great inspirer for me.

Note: To express certainty.

If + past perfect + comma + subject + might have + verb3 + other words.

If you had worked hard, you might have prospered in life.

Note: To express possibility.

If + past perfect + comma + subject + could have + verb3 + other words.

If I had written this article, I could have got the first prize.