Introductory “There and It”

The uses of “There”

We know “There” indicates place. That means, it acts as an adverb of place. But in some cases, it has no meaning of its own. It is just used as a preparatory/introductory subject when we say something exist of doesn’t exist somewhere.

For examples:-

There is a college in our locality.

There are many students in our school.

There are some birds in the tree.

We use “There” with all “helping verb” and “model verb + be”.

For examples:-

There is a rat in this room .

There was a snake in this hole.

There will be no fruits in this meeting.

There may be danger.

We use “There” as preparatory subject with the following verbs.

Verbs Sentence
Appear, seem, go, suppose, tend, happen, chance, turnover, prove + to be +….

There seems to be a snake in the hole.

There appears to be a mistake.

We use “There” as preparatory subject with the following verbs.

Verbs Sentence
Go, come, enter, arrive, take place, exist, live, lie, follow,
sit, emerge, remain etc.

There came a boy to me.

There lived a poor farmer in a village.

There existed an old house in our locality.

We use “There” as preparatory subject with the following determiners and indefinite pronouns.

Determiners and indefinite pronouns Sentence
Some, several, any, no, few,
little, someone, somebody,
anyone, anybody, no one, none etc.

There is someone in the room.

There are some rats in the hole.

There is a little milk in the glass.

We can also use “There” in the interrogative and negative sentence.

Negative sentence Interrogative sentence
There is nothing in the room. Is there anything in the room?
There was nobody in the place. Was there anybody in the place?

The uses of “It”.

We use “It” as preparatory subject instead of “inorganic/lifeless/ things”.

This a chair. You can sit on it.

This is a building. We live in it.

This my pen. You can write with it.

We use “It” as preparatory subject instead of some neuter gender (baby, child).

This is the baby that charmed me with its gesture.

While I was going to market, I saw a little child playing in the field lonely. In the evening, it was also playing lonely and got surprised.

We use “It” as preparatory subject instead of inferior creature/animals.

I saw a tiger. It was furious.

She came to me rapidly because she saw a snake and it was running after her.

I have a pet cat. It is very nice.

We use “It” as preparatory subject with week, month, year, season. Decade, distance, weather, atmosphere, tide, temperature, environment etc.

It is January and the coldest time in our country.

It is seven o’clock.

It is nine o’clock.

We use “It” with expression “It is time + infinitive-to + base form of verb”.

It is time to read.

It is time to go to school.

In is time to play.

We use “It” with expression “It is time/high time/right time/proper time + subject + verb2 + other words”.

It is two years since I lost my father.

It is ten years since I lost my grandfather.

We use “It” with impersonal verbs, such as, appear, seem, look, happen, feel, smell, taste, chance, be, turn, over etc.

It tastes sweet.

It smells sweet.

It appears like a snake.

We use “It” with the expression “It is no + use/good + verb-ing form”.

It is o good buying this old house.

It is no use denoting this valueless task.

We use “It” to emphasize on the meaning of a sentence.

It is Kari who has done this work.

It is the work that Kari has done.

It was Nipa who won the first prize.

We use “It” to avoid the noun/pronoun previously mentioned.

Dhaka is a populous city in the world.

It is like a local market where many people get together every day for their daily purpose.

We use “It” identifying a person.

He is Mr. Kashem, isn’t it?

Who was there when we talked to each other?- It was Jannat.

We use “It” with complex sentence.

It is unknown to all that he is an honest man.

It is Kahsem who did the work.

We also use “It” in some provers or similar expressions.

It is easy to say but, difficult to do.

It is difficult to gain freedom, but more difficult to uphold it.