Linking words

Etymology: The word “Link” means “to bind/couple/connect/join” and hence, linking words mean those words which bind something together.

Definition: The words (group of words) those join two (or more) clauses, sentences or parts of sentence are called linking words. Linking words also known as “Linkers/connectors”.

Linkers Sentence
But He is poor, but happy.
So that We came there so that we could play in the open air.

Types of liking words

There are several types of linking words.

Conjunctions

Relative pronouns

Adverbs and adverbials

Infinitives

Participles

Conjunctions can be divided into three types

1. Coordinating conjunctions

2. Correlative conjunctions

3. Subordinating conjunctions

1. Coordinating conjunctions

Definition: Linking words those join or connect two independent clauses, called coordinating conjunctions.

Liking words

And

Tania went to village and enjoyed natural beauty.

Jannat is beautiful and she is honest too.

Note: Joins positive sense.

Note: Make compound sentence.

But

Kari is a poor farmer, but he is honest.

Asad was rich, but he was dishonest.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Make compound sentence.

For

I didn’t go varsity for was ill.

Note: Denotes reason.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Nor

Not a book nor a pen was on the table.

Neither Nipa nor Dipa was present.

Note: Denotes neither between two things.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Or

Play or go home.

Either joy or his friend did this.

Do it or go astray.

Note: Denotes choice between two things.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

So

John is working so he won’t go with you.

Note: Denotes reason/result.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Yet

He was rough and tough, yet he was educated.

She is beautiful, yet she is boastful.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Otherwise

Do this word, otherwise you will be punished.

Work hard, otherwise you can’t prosper in life.

Note: Joins opposite sense/result.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Therefore

He was honest, therefore he as permitted.

We all agreed, therefore we can go picnic.

Note: Shows result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

However

You can come to my house however you like.

They can play football, however they want.

Note: Show mode of action.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Also/as well

He is a writer, also he is a doctor.

He is a writer and a doctor as well.

Note: Add information.

Note: Make compound sentence.

Moreover

He is smart, moreover he is a good man.

Tania is beautiful, moreover she is good girl.

Note: Add information.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Ass well as

Nipa as well as Jannat went to village.

Adib as well as Adud did this work.

Note: Add information.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Thus

He is abnormal, thus he is unable to do this.

She was happy, thus she enjoyed her life.

Note: Show result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Whereas

I love her very much whereas she hates me.

Whereas I was ill, I was absent.

Whereas I loves rose, my wife loves tulip.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Shows reason of action.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

While

It was raining while we were playing.

It was winter while I was enjoying.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Especial note: Coordinating conjunctions make compound sentence.

2. Correlative conjunctions

Definition: The linking words those put into a sentence in a pair and denote different meanings, called correlative conjunctions. They connect positive, opposite sense. They also emphasize on the meaning of a sentence or make a choice between things and other meanings.

Linking words

Both…..and

Both Dilu and Jilu came to my birthday.

Note: Joins homogenous things.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Not….. any more

Akash does not speak any more.

Note: Emphasizes on her meaning.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Not… any longer

Tania does not stay here any longer.

Note: Emphasize on the meaning.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Not only… but also

Not only he but also his friend was guilty.

Note: Emphasize on the meaning.

Note: Make compound sentence.

Either….or

Either she or her friend did this.

Note: Denotes choice.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Neither…nor

Neither Mary nor Jerry was present.

Note: Denotes choice.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

No sooner… than

No sooner had I come here, than he left.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

So…..that

He was so weak that he couldn’t lift his tiny bag.

Note: Denotes cause and effect.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Hardly….when

Hardly had Sushi come here, when Dilu went.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Scarcely….when

Scarcely had Nupur read a book, when Jiko came.

Note: Denotes time.

Makes complex sentence.

Rarely….when

Rarely had Bablu written, when Shiplu carried.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Whether….or

It is not matter whether you come or not.

Note: Makes comparison.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Such….as

This is not such a shirt as I bought yesterday.

Note: Makes comparison.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Though…yet

Though he is poor, yet he is happy.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

The same…as

This is the same pant as I bought on Monday.

Note: Makes comparison.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

So…as

He is not so/as good as his brother is.

She was not so beautiful as her sister.

Note: Makes comparison.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Especial note: Most of the correlative conjunctions make compound sentence, some make and complex sentence

3. Subordinating conjunctions

Definition: The conjunctions those join or connect two (or more) independent of dependent clauses, called subordinating conjunctions. They express different meaning like correlative conjunctions.

Linking words

As…if

She talks as if she knew everything.

Nancy behaves as if she was a leader.

Note: Denotes mode of action.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

As thought

She talks as though she knows everything.

Nancy behave as though she was a leader.

Note: Denotes mode of action.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Although/though

Although he was student, he was criminal.

She was beautiful though she was old.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

As soon as

As soon as Jui had finished work, mark left.

As soon as he had come here, they went away.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

After

The doctor came after the patient had died.

The patient died after the doctor had come.

Note: Indicates time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

As

He had his work as he usually does.

Mamun talked to us as he always does.

Note: Denotes mode of action.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Before

We had arrived at the station before he came.

We had gone there before they reached.

Note: Indicates time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Till/until

I will wait for you until you come.

Wait here till she comes.

Note: Indicates time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Unless

I won’t do this sum unless you do this.

You will miss the bus unless you walk fast.

Note: Impose condition.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Because

He was absent in the class because he was ill.

She is tired because she has worked hard.

Note: Shows reason of action.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

For

For her illness, she couldn’t attend in the meeting.

He couldn’t perform well for his aloofness.

Note: Shows reason of action.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Than

He is better than his brother.

She was worse than her sister.

Note: Make comparison.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Provided that/Providing that

I can do this provided that you don’t jib.

He will go there providing that he won’t go.

Note: Impose condition.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Since

Since he was weak, he was not able to do this.

He was absent at home since he was in office.

Note: Shows reason of action.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Even though

Even though he was late, he was not punished.

They played football evening though it was raining.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

So that

She was going to village so that she could see Jui.

Monir came here so that he could get a job.

Note: Denotes purpose.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

When

When we reached at the station, he saw us.

Nipa came to me when it was quite dark.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Whenever

Call me whenever you need me.

Whenever you get time, meet me in my office.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Forasmuch

Forasmuch, he was in trouble, he needed help.

Joy is rich, forasmuch has done hard work.

Note: Shows reason of action.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

How

Inform him, how he can solve the problem.

I was afraid how he went there.

Note: Show mode of action.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Especial note: Subordinating conjunctions make complex sentence

Relative Pronouns

Definition: Relative pronouns act as subordinating conjunctions and connect two or more clauses or sentence together.

Linking words

Who

I knew the man who came here yesterday.

The old man is a farmer who works in the field.

Note: Substituted by person.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Whom

I knew the man whom you called foolish.

The man whom you sent to me was wise.

Note: Objective form or who.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

That

He said to me that he had gone there.

Akash bought a bat that was red and green.

Note: Substituted by person/thing.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Which

This is the book which I mine.

That is the table which is made of stainless steel.

Note: Substituted by thing only/inferior animals/children.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Whose

He wanted to know whose father was a doctor.

They know the girl whose mother is a teacher.

Note: Possessive case of who.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

What

I knew what he told him yesterday.

Tellme what you want to do.

Note: Substituted by thing/material.

Note: Makes complex sentence.

Especial note: Relative pronouns act as subordinating conjunctions and make complex sentence.

Adverb and adverbials

Definition: Some adverbs and adverbials act as connector or linker. They can connect two or more clauses. Some important adverbs and adverbials are given below.

Linking words

As a result

The road was damaged, as a result, he didn’t come to me as well as I didn’t go there.

Note: Shows result.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Despite

Despite being poor, he is happy.

He was pious, despite being hot-tempered.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

In spite of

In spite of his poverty, he is happy.

He was pious, in spite of his tot-tempered.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Yet

He was rough and tough, yet he was educated.

She is beautiful, yet she is boastful.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Nevertheless

She is rude to me, nevertheless I like her.

They are cricketers, nevertheless they like football.

Note: Joins opposite sense.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

However

You can come to my house however you like.

They can play football, however they want.

Note: Shows mode of action.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Therefore

He was honest, therefore the was permitted.

We all agreed, therefore we can go to picnic.

Note: Shows result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Consequently

He was dishonest, consequently he suffered from many troubles in his life.

Note: Show result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Once

Once upon a time, there was a famous king, named “King Lear”. He had three daughters.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Now

He is very poor. Now he is working hard for his livelihood to his family.

Note: Denotes time/Joins ideas.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Then

We went to market, then we came back home.

They disputed each other, and then left the place.

Note: Denotes time.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

As a consequence

Harry stole my money, as a consequence he was punished, and then handed on the police.

Note: Shows result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Thus

He is abnormal, thus he is unable to do this.

She was happy, thus she enjoyed her life.

Note: Shows result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Hence

As he was thief, hence he was punished.

He came to me, hence I couldn’t misbehave with him.

Note: Shows result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

For that reason

She was pious, for that reason everybody liked her.

They were good boys, for that reason I liked him.

Note: Shows result/consequence.

Note: Makes compound sentence.

Especial note: Besides these, adverb of time (when, whenever….) adverb of place (where, here…) etc. can be used as linking word. They can make simple, compound, even complex sentence corresponding to the situation in where they are used.

Infinitives

Definition: To complete the incomplete expression, we can use infinitives as connector. In this order situation, “infinitive-To + base form of verb” acts as linker/connector.

Linking words

To + base form of verb.

Nipa sold her hair to buy a gif for my birthday.

Jannata went to market to buy a gift for me.

Tamim is crying to but a toy car.

Note: Joins incomplete sense.

Note: Express purpose.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

To + base form of verb

Tusher came here to see his grandmother.

Badsha joined us to play football.

Ali did this work to get extra money.

Note: Joins incomplete sense.

Note: Express purpose.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Participles

Definition: Line infinitives participles can be used as linker. They can two incomplete expression and join them together. See non-finite verbs, for details about participle.

Linking words

Being

Being rich, he does not hard work.

Being a doctor, he studies hard.

Note: Express purpose.

Note: Joins incomplete sense.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Having

Having finished our work, we returned home.

Having complete this book, I took rest.

Note: Express purpose.

Joins incomplete sense.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Past participle

Brought the book, I read that thrice in a week.

Gone there, he set under a big tree.

Note: Express purpose.

Note: Joins incomplete sense.

Note: Makes simple sentence.

Some important connector/linkers.

To express “Time” use the following linkers.

Linkers

Now, then, after, before, later, after a while, then, thereafter, while, until now, until, till, soon, currently, initially, finally, formerly, in the past, in the present, at that time, in the meanwhile, earlier, at the same time, presently, previously, simultaneously, by time, since etc.

We visited zoo, then we saw a weird thing.

I went there very late; in the meanwhile Nafis had reached there.

He has reached at home. I will come presently.

I have been waiting since morning. He came at dawn.

To express “Place” use the following linkers.

Linkers

Above, below, here, there, where, Where there is a will, there is a way, wherever, in front of, behind, beside, to left side, to right side, in meeting. the background, in the middle, foreground, close to, adjacent, near at etc.

Where there is a will, there is a way.

I saw my cousin in front of the row in the meeting.

The school was situated near at my home. It was very beautiful school in the Upozilla.

To express “Comparison” use the following linkers.

Linkers

Resemblance, corresponding to, correspondingly, not only...but also, as...as, so...as, likewise, similarly, equally, completely, in the same way, the same……as, such…as etc.

She is as beautiful as her sister.

He likes not only apple but also orange.

This is the same toy as I bought my little baby.

They did two mistakes. Both are equally done.

To express “Contrast” use the following linkers.

Linkers

In fact, conversely, on the other hand, by contrast, instead of, instead, on the contrary, in reality, actually, as a matter of fact, to say frankly, despite, in spite of, though, although, even though, but, alternatively, in contrast, on the opposite side, nevertheless, otherwise etc.

Despite being ill, he was present in the meeting.

I support Sahanaj, on the contrary my brother support’s Jannat.

He did this task; as a matter of' fact he was obligated to do that.

To express “Outcome/result/consequence” use the following linkers.

Linkers

Accordingly, as a result, as a consequence, consequently, hence, then, thus, before, therefore, so, in the long run etc.

We have done this, as a result Kari escaped from the blame that was punishable.

To show “Reference” use the following linkers

Linkers

And, or, namely, mostly, notably, mainly, as follow, such as, in particular, particularly, chiefly, including, for instance, for example etc.

We know many things about the person, namely Mr. Sigmund Freud, a psychoanalytic terrorist, contributed a lot of psychology.

To denote “Listing” of something/events etc. use the following linkers.

Linkers.

One…a second….a third etc. Firstly.. secondly….thirdly etc. First…second…furthermore…finally etc. To being with….in the second place…moreover….to concluded/in conclusion.

First do this task, second writes down how you have done that and finally submit it to me.

There are many reasons after traffic jam. Firstly, drivers don’t obey the traffic rules. Secondly, roads are so narrow. Thirdly, illegal parking on the roads.

To express “Summery” use the following linkers.

Linkers

In brief, in short, to concluded, to summarize, to say shortly, in a nutshell, altogether, in a word, in fine, in a few words, to sum up, to be brief etc.

It is a long story, so I am going to describes it in brief/in short.

A to express “Replacement” use the following linkers.

Linkers

Alternatively, the alternative, again, on the other hand, in other word, in the other sense, rather etc.

You can take this book. Alternatively, you can take that book.

To express “Reinforcement” or to emphasize on the meaning of the sentence, use the following linkers.

Linkers

Not only…but also, above all, further, again, actually, specially, particularly, too…to, so….that, very…and, as well as, furthermore, additionally, in addition, moreover, obviously, also, indeed, besides, notably etc.

He not only did this but also did that nasty task.

He is too weak to walk. She is so beautiful that any-one will be amused.

A man came here yesterday. Again, he will come tomorrow to meet you.

More expressions with different linkers.

Examples

For example, for instance, such as, as an illustration, to illustrate, to demonstrate, to exemplify, like, namely, that is to sat etc.

There are many kinds of books in this library, such as, story books, magazines, articles, English Literature etc.

Addition

And, moreover, also, also added that, further, furthermore, in addition, so on,what not etc.

I went to market and bought fish, meat, milk, oil, vegetables and so on.

Reformulations

In other words, that is, rather, that is to say, in that case, in this case, in this situation etc.

He was in trouble, in that case he could call me and could escape from that trouble.

Purpose

So that, for, in order to, to, in order that, so as to, that etc.

She went there in order to/to meet her boyfriend.

Reason of action

For, since, as, owing to, because, because of, due to, on account of, being, this is why, that is why, for this, so etc.

Since the old man was all in all in the family, nobody could anything as their will.

Azad failed in the examination. For this, he had to bear bitter word.

Concession

Despite, in spite of besides, nevertheless, naturally, however, doubtless, no doubt, only , all the same, even if, even, up to point, at the same time, certainly, truly, surely etc.

He had left the place after we reached. No doubt, he was a smuggler. Besides this, we saw him other in the same event.

I called him yesterday. However, you were absent and missed important thing.

Conditions

If, unless, in case, supposing that, provided that, providing that, on that conditions, had, were etc.

If you go, I will accompany with you.

I will do it providing that you do it first.

Past time

Ago, once upon a time, in ancient time, long ago, long long ago, many days ago, in past, in the past etc.

One upon a time, there was a farmer who was honest and pious. He had two daughters and three sons.

Fortunes/misfortune

Fortunately, unfortunately, by chance, luckily, unluckily etc.

He did the work, unfortunately he made mistake and the boos offered him scold.

Frequency

Sometime, usually, regularly, often, again and again, frequently, very often, generally, as usual, twice, thrice etc.

He goes to school regularly.

I go to village to see my grandmother very often