The Mood

Definition: Mood is the function of a verb. In other sense, mood refers to how a verb express human’s thoughts, feeling etc.

So, we can say, mood refers to difficult ways in which the meaning of a sentence can be varied, by alternating the order of words or by adding other words to the verb group.

Examples:-

She is running swiftly.

The boy is playing well.

Do this work,

Don’t tell a lie.

Types of mood

There are four types of mood. They are-

1. Declarative mood

2. Interrogative mood

3. Imperative mood

4. Subjunctive mood

1. Declarative mood

Definition: The declarative mood is the mood used in most main clauses. Statements are almost always mad using the declarative mood. When a clause is in this mood, the subject is placed in front of the verb.

The declarative mood is sometimes called the indicative mood.

Uses of declarative mood

When we are giving information, you use the declarative mood.

We ate dinner at six.

I like reading poetry.

When we are expressing an opinion, we usually use the declarative mood.

I think she is a brilliant writer.

It’s a good thing Father is deaf.

When we make a promise, we use the declarative mood.

I shall do everything I can to help you.

I’ll have it sent down by special delivery.

We can emphasize a statement by putting “do”, “does”, “or”, “did”, “in front of the base form of the verb.

I do feel sorry for Roy.

A little knowledge does seem to be a dangerous thing.

We can confirm that something is true by asking a question using the declarative mood.

So you admit something is wrong?

Then you think we can keep it?

When we ask a question using the declarative mood, we expect the answer “yes”, unless we use a negative construction, in which case we expect the answer “no”,

You mean it’s still here?- Of course.

Questions expressed in the declarative mood often begin with a conjunction.

So you are satisfied?

And you will listen dutifully?

We can give an instruction in a fairly informal way by using a declarative sentence with “you” as the subject.

You put the month.

You carry the luggage until I tell you stop.

2. Interrogative mood

Definition: The interrogative is the mood usually use in questions. In clauses in this mood, the subject is often place after the main verb or after an auxiliary verb.

Examples:-

Is she very upset?

Where is my father?

Uses of interrogative mood.

When we ask a question, we usually use the interrogative mood.

Types of questions.

There are two main types of question.

a. Yes/no question: Questions which can be answered by “yes” or “no” are called “yes/no” questions.

Examples:-

Is he your only child?- Yes.

Are you planning to marry soon?-No.

b. Wh-question: The question begins with a “wh”-word such as “what”, “where’, or “when”.

When we make a question of this types, the answer cannot be “yes” or “no”.

Examples:-

“Who is he?” -A man called Farhan.

Why didn’t you ask me?- I was afraid to.

Where is he now? -H’s at university.

N: B: When “wh”-words are used a pronouns or adverbs at the beginning of a “wh”- question, they are called interrogative pronouns of interrogative adverbs.

3. Imperative mood

Definition: The imperative mood is a mood giving a very clear order of instruction, making suggestion/report, giving advice etc.

Examples:-

Stop her.

Put that gun down.

Please, help me.

Give a pen.

Uses of the imperative mood

Giving clear or instruction.

Examples:-

Stop her.

Put that gun down.

An order can be made more forceful by putting “you” in front of the verb.

You get in the car.

You shut up.

We can use imperative mood when we are giving advice of a warning.

Examples:-

Be sensible.

You be careful.

Often advice of a waning is expressed in a negative form. We form a negative imperative by putting “don’t” or “do not” in front of the base form of the verb.

Examples:-

Don’t be afraid of them.

Don’t be discouraged.

Another way of giving advice of a warning is to use one of the modals “should” or “ought to” in declarative sentence.

Examples:-

You should get to know him better.

We use the imperative mood when you are appealing to someone to do something.

Examples:-

Come quickly.

Do quickly.

Hurry!

We can make an appeal more forceful by putting “do” in front of the verb.

Examples:-

Do help me out.

And now, please do stop crying.

We can use the imperative mood with some verb when we are explaining something and we want the listener or reader to think about a particular thing or possibility, or to compare two things.

Examples:-

Take, for instance, the new proposals for student loans.

“Let” used in imperative sentence in four different way.

1. It is used to give an order or instruction.

Let Joy have a look at it.

2. We use it followed by “us” when we are making a suggestion about what we and someone else should do. “Let us” is almost always shortened to “Let’s”.

Let’s go outside.

Let’s creep forward on hands and knees.

3. We use it followed by “me” when we are offering to do something.

Let me take your coat.

4. In very formal English, it is used to express a wish.

Let the Joy be universal.

Let the best man or woman win.

4. Subjunctive mood.

Definition: Subjunctive mood is a mood which denotes wish, prayer, intention, purpose, certain/uncertainly etc. This is a feature of verbs which sometimes occurs in subordinate clauses.

Examples:-

If you go, I will accompany with you.

May Allah bless you.

Work hard, otherwise you can’t prosper in life.