More about adjectives

Etymology: The word “adjective” comes from Old French “adjectif” and Latin “adjectivus” means “that is added (to noun), to throw or place a thing near”.

Definition: The adjective are the words which show or express quality, quantity, state, order etc. of a person/thing/animal/place. In short, we can say, the words that modify nouns/pronouns called adjectives.

An adjective is a word to qualify a noun or a pronoun. J.C- Nesfield

Examples:-

He is a good student.

Kabir is an intelligent boy.

Sadika is a clever girl.

The girl has a large frock.

I ate some rice.

Features of adjectives

1. Modify nouns/pronouns.

Examples:-

Mamun is an honest boy.

Nipa is a beautiful girl.

2. Adjectives can be used as before nouns, called attributive use of adjective and after linking verbs, called predicative use of adjective.

Examples:-

Niloy is a good singer. (Attributive use of adjective)

These balls are white. (Predicative use of adjective)

3. The following are the adjectives, we use as subject at the beginning of the sentence. Such as-poor, rich, young, old, Bangladeshi, bangla, deaf, dead etc.

Examples:-

The poor man is begging door to door.

The young boy had shown his magical power.

That means, the + mentioned adjectives….

4. Noun can be used as adjective when we use it before another noun.

Examples:-

Mr. Akash bought a litre of mustard oil.

G. B. Shaw is known as great play writer after W. Shakespeare.

Nipa found a gold coin.

5. Articles can be used as adjectives.

Examples:-

Niha has a book.

Tania has an umbrella.

Classification of adjective

1. Adjectives of quality.

2. Adjectives of quantity.

3. Adjectives of number/numeral adjective.

a. Definite adjective.

b. Indefinite adjective.

4. Pronominal adjective.

a. Interrogative adjective.

b. Demonstrative adjective.

c. Relative adjective.

d. Distributive adjective.

e. Emphatic adjective.

5. Possessive adjective.

6. Other adjective.

a. Proper adjective.

b. Noun + noun.

Adjectives in details

1. Adjective of quality

Definition: Adjectives that show or express quality of a person/thing/place/animal, called adjectives of quality.

Examples:-

Nipa is a beautiful girl.

Tania is an intelligent girl.

Mamun is a nice person.

Thus, wise, rich, poor, educated, honest, good, bad, small, big, thick, thin, tall etc. are adjectives of quality. Adjectives of quality are also known as descriptive adjective.

2. Adjective of quantity

Definition: Adjective that show or express quantity of a thing/substance/material, called adjectives of quantity.

Examples:-

Kabir has lost some books.

Ratan brought plenty of nice for poor people.

Thus, much, a lot of, lots of, little, a little, more, most, enough, any etc. are adjectives of quantity

3. Numeral adjective

Definition: Adjectives that show or express number of a person/thing or order of a series of persons/things, called numeral adjective.

Examples:-

Kabir has one brother and one sister.

Lima has two story books.

Mamun is the first boy in the class.

Thus, some, all, second, third, single, double... are numeral adjective.

More details about Numeral Adjective

Numeral adjective can classify into the following categories:-

1. Definite adjective

2. Indefinite adjective

1. Definite adjective

a. Cardinal adjectives: One, two, three, four, five etc.

b. Ordinal Adjectives: First, second, third, fourth etc.

c. Multiplicative adjectives: Single, double, triple etc.

2. Indefinite adjective

a. When we use some, few, little, all, whole, enough etc. before countable nouns, called numeral adjective.

I have some books.

All students left the class room.

Liton has drunk little milk.

b. When we use some, nearly, about, almost, approximately etc. before definite cardinal numeral adjectives, called indefinite cardinal numeral adjective.

Nearly 10 people came here.

He ate about 12 bananas.

Kabir scored nearly M 49 runs.

Approximately 100 members refused the proposal.

c. When we use them before uncountable nouns, called quantitative adjective.

4. Pronominal adjective

Definition: When we use pronouns before nouns and those pronouns act as an adjective, that’s why, they are called pronominal adjective.

Examples:-

Everybody loves his/her country.

Billal found his pen.

They are talking to themselves.

Kinds of Pronominal adjective

1. Relative adjective.

2. Interrogative adjective.

3. Distributive adjective.

4. Demonstrative adjective.

5. Emphatic adjective.

6. Possessive adjective.

1. Relative adjective: (who, what, which, whatever, that, whoever etc.) When place before noun and act as an adjective is called Relative adjective.

Examples:-

He gave me that thing I expected.

Ali bought which pant I did.

Father gave me what shirt I wanted.

2. Interrogative adjective: (who, whose, which, what etc.) When place before noun and act as adjective and asks question is called Interrogative adjective.

Examples:-

Which book do you want?

What is your name?

How old are you?

3. Distributive adjective: (Either, these, that, those, every etc.) When place before noun and act as an adjective is called Distributive Adjective.

Examples:-

Neither book is good.

Each boy will get an umbrella.

Both the girls did well in the exam.

4. Demonstrative adjective: (this, these, that, those, such, other, the same etc.) When place before noun and act as an adjective is called Demonstrative adjective.

Examples:-

This book is mine.

Such people are praised by all.

Those people are known to me.

5. Emphatic adjective: (own, very) Emphatic adjectives is something that is said or done with strong emotion or action.

Examples:-

I saw it with my own eyes.

Sara will come to me this very day.

This is the very book that I wanted.

6. Possessive adjective: (my, our, your, his, her, their etc.) when place before noun and act as an adjective is called Possessive adjective.

Examples:-

This is my pen.

He is my sister.

The girt cut her hair.

5. Other adjective

A. Proper adjective: Proper adjective stem from proper nouns.
Proper nouns Proper adjective Examples
Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bruk likes Bangladeshi peoples.
India Indian Roy is an Indian but lives in America.
America American American people are intelligent.
Africa African Most African are black.
Mexico Mexican Mr. John is a Mexican.
B. Noun + noun = adjective (1st noun).

Example:-

Mr. Kabir bought two kilos of coconut oil.

He has lost his nail cutter.

C. Articles

Examples:-

I have a book.

She made an umbrella.

I know the man.

He knew the place where Kabir lived.

Some common adjectives "ending-ed" and "ending-ing".

Ending-ed Ending-ing
Annoyed Annoying
Amazed Amazing
Amused Amusing
Astonished Astonishing
Bored Boring
Confused Confusing
Depressed Depressing
Disgusted Disgusting
Disappointed Disappointing
Embarrassed Embarrassing
Excited Exciting
Fascinated Fascinating
Frightened Frightening
Interested Interesting
Surprised Surprising
Shocked Shocking
Tired Trying
Worried Worrying