More about adverbs and adverbials

Etymology: The word “adverb” comes from Latin word “Adverbium” means “that which is added to an adverb”.

Definition: The adverb is a word that modifies noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, preposition or adverb. In the other sense, an adverb is word that modifies or adds something to the meaning of any parts of speech without interjection.

Examples:-

Mamun runs slowly.

Nipa speaks fast.

Jannat is a good girl.

Features of adverb

1. Adverbs modify noun.

Examples:-

Even Nipa knew this secret.

Only Kamal go to school regularly.

2. Adverbs modify pronoun.

Examples:-

Your sincerely.

Only she has done this homework.

3. We use adverbs to modify or quality the whole sentence.

Examples:-

Actually Kabir has done this work.

Unfortunately, Jannat lost her mobile phone.

The following adverbs are used to qualify or modify the whole sentence.

Actually Clearly Fortunately Unfortunately Luckily Surely Probably Normally Occasionally Usually etc.

N: B: We use these adverbs at the beginning of the sentence of when they modify the whole sentence.

4. We use adjective after these following verbs such as, appear, feel, look, like, seem, smell, sound, taste etc. and generally, we can’t use adverb after them.

Examples:-

Nipa seem beautiful.

Jannat feels good.

Hamza sounds good.

5. The following words can be used as both adjective and adverb.

Words act as adverb and adjective Adverb Adjective
Daily/weekly/
monthly/yearly
Alif comes here daily/weekly/
monthly/yearly.
We do our daily/weekly/monthly/
yearly work.
Early/late Niloy gets up early/late Kamrul is an early bird/is too late.
Better/well Hasan did the work better/well. I am well/better.
Enough/much/little

We are well enough.

They play much good.

Niloy is little good for this job.

We haven’t enough food.

I drunk little milk.

There is much water in this pond.

Long/straight I want to go varsity straight/ I don’t stay long. This is a long/straight way to go home.
Hard I work hard. I can do hard work.
Cheap Joy sold his land cheap. Joy bought cheap rice.
Safe Grandma came here safe. I didn’t found safe place to keep it.
Free We are wandering free. We are free now.
Right/wrong He answered right/wrong. He did right/wrong thing.
Fast/quick He speaks fast/quick. He is fast/quick runner.
Loud Jannat speaks loud. I don’t like loud sound.

6. Adverbs, generally, end with “ly”.

Main words Adverbs
Rare Rarely
Slow Slowly
Clear Clearly
Fair Fairly
Quick Quickly
Entire Entirely
Strong Strongly
Deep Deeply
Nice Nicely
Sure Surely
Final Finally
Correct Correctly
Happy Happily
Sudden Suddenly
Regular Regularly
Difficult Difficulty
Frequent Frequently
Dear Dearly
Normal Normally
Soft Softly
Occasion Occasionally
Certain Certainly
Sad Sadly
High Highly
Heavy Heavily
Complete Completely
Hard Hardly
Large Largely
General Generally
Slight Slightly
Perfect Perfectly
Full Fully
Careful Carefully
Total Totally
Whole Wholly
Easy Easily

N: B: The following words ending with “ly” are not adverbs but, counted as “adjectives”.

Costly Deadly Cowardly Lovely Lively Silly Lonely Ugly Friendly Likely Unlikely Lately Recently etc.

7. Adverbs that comes before adjectives and intensify them, called intensifiers such as:-

Absolutely, completely, deeply, very, perfectly, greatly, highly, thoroughly, extremely, quietly etc.

8. Adverbs can be used as noun.

Examples:-

Mamun came out form inside.

He came here from there.

9. Some adverbs can be used as more than one class.

The bird sings delightly. Adverb of manner

The weather is delightfully cool. Adverb of degree

You should go far. Adverb of place

He is far better today. Adverb of degree

Types of adverb

Generally, there are three types of adverb.

1. Simple Adverbs

2. Interrogative Adverbs

3. Relative Adverbs and conjunctive adverb

1. Simple Adverbs

Definition: Adverbs that denote manner, frequency, place, time, quality, quantity, cause and effect, order etc. are called simple adverbs.

Type of simple adverbs

a. Adverbs of time

b. Adverbs or place

c. Adverbs of manner

d. Adverbs of order

e. Adverbs of frequency/number

f. Adverbs of quantity/degree

g. Adverbs of assertion and negation

h. Adverbs of cause and effect

a. Adverb of time

Definition: Adverb that indicates time of action takes places, called adverb of time. It answers the question “when”.

Adverb of time

Always, After, Afterwards, Already, Again, Late, Lately, Today, Tomorrow, Then, Yesterday, Daily, Soon, Since, Early, Never, Now, Recently, Instantly, Immediately, Presently, Continuously, Now-a-days etc.

Examples:-

Kabir came here yesterday.

Asad will come tomorrow.

Nipa always comes here.

Dipa gets up early in the morning.

Samad has already done this work.

b. Adverb of place

Definition: Adverb that indicates places of action where that take place, called adverb of place. It answers the question “where”.

Adverb of place

Above, Ahead, Everywhere, Anywhere, Here, There, Abroad, Overhead, Below, In, Out, Outside, Inside, Down, Up, Within etc.

Examples:-

Karim is outside the class room.

Tania went to meet her friend.

We live in Dhaka.

c. Adverb of manner

Definition: Adverb that show the manner/how an action is done, called adverb of manner. It answers the question “how”.

Adverb of manner

Slowly, Easily, Quickly, Clearly, Difficulty, Nicely, Wisely etc.

d. Adverb of order

Definition: Adverb that shows the order or sequence or arrangement of an action, called adverb of order.

Adverb of order.

First, Firstly, Second, Secondly, Third, Thirdly, Last, Lastly, Finally, Next etc.

e. Adverb of frequency/number

Definition: Adverb that show how often something takes place, called adverb of frequency of number.

Adverb of frequency

Always, A lot, Usually, Generally, Often, Frequently, Sometimes, Normally, Occasionally, Never, Once, Twice, Trice/three times, Four times, Rarely, Hardly, Seldom etc.

N: B: It is noticeable adverb of frequency also show the name an action takes place.

f. Adverb of quantity/degree

Definition: Adverb that show quantity or degree of something, called adverb of quantity.

Adverb of quantity

A lot, A bit, Totally, Wholly, Completely, Fairly, Nicely, Greatly, Badly, Strongly, Weakly, Largely, Partly, Fully, Little, Quite, Less, More, Almost, Slightly, Pretty, Entirely, Extremely, Such, As etc.

g. Adverb of assertion and negation

Definition: Adverb of that shows assertion of negation, certainly or uncertainly of something, called adverb of assertion and negation.

Adverb of assertion and negation

Surely, Definitely, Obviously, Certainly, Truly, Really, Absolutely, Thoroughly, Never, Not, No, May be, Probably, Possibly, Perhaps, At all, Indeed, Actually etc.

h. Adverb of cause and effect

Definition: Adverb that show the cause and effect relation of something, called adverb of cause and effect.

Adverb of cause and effect

Hence, Therefore, Why, That’s why, So, So that, Consequently, As a result, Accordingly, Otherwise etc.

2. Interrogative adverb

Definition: Interrogative adverbs are those question word (when, where, how, why) which denotes time, place, cause, quantity, number, manner, degree etc.

Interrogative adverbs

1. Adverbs of place Where are they?
2. Adverb of time When will Nipa go to varsity?
3. Adverb of manner How shall achieve this goal?
4. Adverb of number How often do you do this?
5. Adverb of quantity How much it will be?
6. Adverb of degree How far will you go with me?
7. Adverb of cause Why did you do this nasty job?

3. Relative and conjunctive adverb

Definition: Question word (where, when, how, why) that act as relative pronoun and connect two clauses or sentences, called relative adverbs and when they connect two clauses or sentences without antecedent, called conjunctive adverbs.

Relative adverbs Conjunctive adverbs
I know the place* Where he lives in. I know where he lives in.
I know the reason* Why Nipa hates me I know why Nipa hates me.
Tania can remember the event* How it took place. Tania can remember how the event took place.
Jannat forgot the time* When she came here. Jannat forgot when she came here.

Asterisk (*) mark denotes antecedent.

Important uses of adverb

Always, already, ever, never, usually, rarely, seldom, occasionally, generally, perhaps, probably, sometime, frequently etc. are used after “auxiliary verb” and before “main verb”.

Examples:-

Tania usually goes to varsity at 8.00 am.

Jannat has already done the homework.

Alive sometimes speaks himself.

Joy will probably come tomorrow.

Every day, today, yesterday, week, month, year, last week/month/year, most evening, once a week etc. are used at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence.

Examples:-

Yesterday Nipa came here and met me.

Or, Nipa came here and met me yesterday.

Most evening Joy come to me for project.

Or, Joy comes to me for project most evening.

Generally, adverbs are used after intransitive verb and before the object of transitive verb.

Examples:-

Hama saw the incident closely.

Inlay walks slowly.

Well and good: express about same meaning. However, well is considered as adverb whereas good as adjective.

N: B: in good health, well acts as adjective.

Examples:-

Mamun speaks Hindi well. (Adverb)

Mamun is a good boy. (Adjective)

I am well. (Adjective)

Very and quite: quite means completely and used before past participle and adjective (happy, well, right, wrong, hopeless, sure, helpless, full, empty etc.).

On the other hand, very is used before adjective that expresses negative meaning.

Examples:-

My father is quite well.

Jannat is quite happy.

I am very unwell.

The girl is very dangerous.

Joy was very sure about that.

Too and enough: too means “more than enough” and used in negative expression.

Enough means “sufficient” and generally use before “noun” and after “adjective”.

Examples:-

He is too weak to walk.

Asad was too tired to work.

We have enough food.

She is good enough.

Very much and much too: very much means “enough” and much too qualities “adjective and adverb”.

Examples:-

I am very much upset for myself.

Kamal is much too good.

Kamal is much too well.

At present and presently: at present means “present time of current event” but, presently means “very soon”.

Examples:-

We live in science age at present.

He will come presently.

She will write me presently.

Too many and too much: too many is used before constable noun and too much used before uncountable noun.

Examples:-

There is too many peoples in the spot.

There is too much milk in the glass.

Far and far: far is used before comparative degree and by far is used before superlative degree.

Examples:-

Knowledge is far better than money.

Educated people are far better than uneducated.

Tania is by far the cleverest girl in the class.

Any longer and any more: they are used at the end of the clauses denoting that a situation has ended and denotes not exist now.

Examples:-

I can’t wait for you anymore/any longer.

We won’t see each other anymore/any longer.

No more/no longer: they are used with an affirmative clauses in the middle position.

Examples:-

I no longer want to miss you.

I no more want to stay alone without you.

Late and lately/recently: late means “delay” and lately/recently means “current time of time when an event has occurred just few days/weeks/months ago”.

Examples:-

He is always late.

I have lately known this fact.

They have recently done this work.

Comparison of adverbs

Like adjective, adverb has its change in degree.

Positive Comparative Superlative
Easily More easily Most easily
Quickly More quickly Most quickly
Near Nearer Nearest
Late Later Latest

N: B: Follow the rules of compassion or adjective