More about conjunctions

Etymology: The word “conjunction” comes from Latin word “conjunctio” means “join together”.

Definition: A conjunction is a word that joins two words, phrase and clauses together in a sentence.

A conjunction is a word for joining one word to another word, or one sentence to another sentence. –J.C. Nesfield


This is the same pen, as that.

Nipa came here, but didn’t talk to me.

In won’t do it until she comes.

I walked as fast as I could.

He is not so honest as you think.

Kinds of conjunction

There are three type of conjunctions. They are:-

1. Co-coordinating conjunction

2. Sub-coordinating conjunction

3. Correlative conjunction

1. Co-coordinating conjunction

Definition: Conjunctions that join the same classes words, phrases and clauses together, called co-coordinating conjunctions.

Examples:- and, and so, also, both, as well as, if, or, while, whatever etc.

Rahim and Karim are classmates.

I love him while he hates me.

Read attentively, otherwise you will fail.

I will it whatever you like it or not.

I shall go if you come.

Types of co-coordinating conjunction

1. Copulative/cumulative

2. Alternative

3. Adversative

4. Illative

1. Copulative/cumulative Conjunction: Join two/more clause of same classes. And, so, as well as, also, both, both---and, not only…but also etc.

Jannat and nipa came here.

Tania ate not only cake but also ice-cream.

2. Alternative Conjunction: Join two clauses in terms of alternative choice. Or, else, otherwise, either…or, neither…nor etc.

Do or die.

You should go there otherwise, you lose your property.

3. Adversative Conjunction: Join two clauses of opposite meaning. But, yet, whereas, however, only, where, nevertheless etc.

Mamun in rich but, unhappy.

He likes you while you hate me.

4. Illative Conjunction: Join two clauses denoting cause-effect relation. Therefore, so, for, as, since, thus, then, consequently etc.

I like you for you are sincere.

Everybody likes him as he is a truthful boy.

2. Sub-coordinating Conjunction

Definition: Conjunction that join sub-coordinating clauses with principle clauses, called sub-coordinating conjunction.


He told me that he would help me.

Wait here unless I tell you.

He is better than me.

If alif come, Hamza will go.

Though he is poor, he is honest.

Note that: Besides Sub-coordinating Conjunction definition. Also, can classify Sub-coordinating Conjunctions into the following categories :-

(i) Apposition: Indicate causes/reason. Since, as, because, for, that etc.


I love her because she is honest.

Niloy was good as he helped the poor.

(ii) Time: Indicate time. After, when, before, till, until etc.


Wait till/until he comes back.

I saw him when he visited my home.

(iii) Purpose: Indicate purpose. That. So that, in order that, lest etc.


walk fast lest you should miss the bus.

Work hard so that you can shine in life.

(iv) Condition: Indicate condition. As if, if, if not, whether, in case etc.


If alif come, Hamza will go.

I’ll do it whatever you like it or not.

(v) Comparison: Indicate Comparison. A, as…as, so…as, than etc.


He is better than me.

He is not so good as I expected.

(vi) Effect: Indicate result. So, that, etc.


He is better than me.

He is not so good as I expected.

3. Correlative Conjunctions

Definition: Conjunctions that join clauses together in pair order, called correlative conjunction. As….as, both….and, either…or, other….than, such….as etc.


He is as smart as joy.

Nipa is both good and nice.

Either alif or you did it.

Neither ali nor you did it.

Kabir is not such boy as you thought.