More about conjunctions

Etymology: The word “conjunction” comes from Latin word “conjunctio” means “join together”.

Definition: A conjunction is a word that joins two words, phrase and clauses together in a sentence.

A conjunction is a word for joining one word to another word, or one sentence to another sentence. –J.C. Nesfield

Examples:-

This is the same pen, as that.

Nipa came here, but didn’t talk to me.

In won’t do it until she comes.

I walked as fast as I could.

He is not so honest as you think.

Kinds of conjunction

There are three type of conjunctions. They are:-

1. Co-coordinating conjunction

2. Sub-coordinating conjunction

3. Correlative conjunction

1. Co-coordinating conjunction

Definition: Conjunctions that join the same classes words, phrases and clauses together, called co-coordinating conjunctions.

Examples:- and, and so, also, both, as well as, if, or, while, whatever etc.

Rahim and Karim are classmates.

I love him while he hates me.

Read attentively, otherwise you will fail.

I will it whatever you like it or not.

I shall go if you come.

Types of co-coordinating conjunction

1. Copulative/cumulative

2. Alternative

3. Adversative

4. Illative

1. Copulative/cumulative Conjunction: Join two/more clause of same classes. And, so, as well as, also, both, both---and, not only…but also etc.

Jannat and nipa came here.

Tania ate not only cake but also ice-cream.

2. Alternative Conjunction: Join two clauses in terms of alternative choice. Or, else, otherwise, either…or, neither…nor etc.

Do or die.

You should go there otherwise, you lose your property.

3. Adversative Conjunction: Join two clauses of opposite meaning. But, yet, whereas, however, only, where, nevertheless etc.

Mamun in rich but, unhappy.

He likes you while you hate me.

4. Illative Conjunction: Join two clauses denoting cause-effect relation. Therefore, so, for, as, since, thus, then, consequently etc.

I like you for you are sincere.

Everybody likes him as he is a truthful boy.

2. Sub-coordinating Conjunction

Definition: Conjunction that join sub-coordinating clauses with principle clauses, called sub-coordinating conjunction.

Examples:-

He told me that he would help me.

Wait here unless I tell you.

He is better than me.

If alif come, Hamza will go.

Though he is poor, he is honest.

Note that: Besides Sub-coordinating Conjunction definition. Also, can classify Sub-coordinating Conjunctions into the following categories :-

(i) Apposition: Indicate causes/reason. Since, as, because, for, that etc.

Examples:-

I love her because she is honest.

Niloy was good as he helped the poor.

(ii) Time: Indicate time. After, when, before, till, until etc.

Examples:-

Wait till/until he comes back.

I saw him when he visited my home.

(iii) Purpose: Indicate purpose. That. So that, in order that, lest etc.

Examples:-

walk fast lest you should miss the bus.

Work hard so that you can shine in life.

(iv) Condition: Indicate condition. As if, if, if not, whether, in case etc.

Examples:-

If alif come, Hamza will go.

I’ll do it whatever you like it or not.

(v) Comparison: Indicate Comparison. A, as…as, so…as, than etc.

Examples:-

He is better than me.

He is not so good as I expected.

(vi) Effect: Indicate result. So, that, etc.

Examples:-

He is better than me.

He is not so good as I expected.

3. Correlative Conjunctions

Definition: Conjunctions that join clauses together in pair order, called correlative conjunction. As….as, both….and, either…or, other….than, such….as etc.

Examples:-

He is as smart as joy.

Nipa is both good and nice.

Either alif or you did it.

Neither ali nor you did it.

Kabir is not such boy as you thought.