More About Prepositions

Etymology: The word “preposition” comes from Latin word “praepositionem” means “putting before”. The word praepositionem” comes from old Latin word “prae” means “before something” and “positionem” means “putting/placing something”.

Definition: Preposition is the word that placed before noun or pronoun showing relation to the other words in the sentence.

Examples:-

To, for, with, out, in, from, through, at, above, below etc.

Features of the prepositions

1. Sometimes, preposition acts as adverb.

Examples:-

I stood outside the room.

The baby is crying inside the room.

2. Sometimes, preposition acts as conjunction.

Example:-

I shall go to varsity after this arrival.

3. Preposition can used before adjective, adverb, infinitive, gerund, phrase or clause.

Preposition before adverb She has heard of this before.
Preposition of adjective He believes in good job.
Preposition before infinitive The old man is about to die.
Preposition before gerund I am sure of winning the race.
Preposition before phrase You must rely on my word of honour.

Kinds of preposition

There are eight kinds of preposition.

1. Simple preparation: Preposition with only one word, called simple preposition. Such as, in, out, with, at etc.

2. Double preposition: Preposition with two words, called double preposition. Such as, into, out so, within, upon etc.

3. Compound preposition: When preposition used before noun, adverb or adjective and acts as simple preposition, called compound preposition.

Such as.

Compound preposition Individual part
Across On + cross
About On + by + out
Beside By + side
Before By + fore
Between By + twin
Behind By + hind
Below By + low
Along On + long

4. Prepositional phrase/phrase preposition: Phrase with two or more words and act as a preposition, called phrase preposition/prepositional phrase.

Deprive/instead of, call at, look over, in case of, look after, die for etc.

5. Participle preposition: When participle (Present/past) acts as preposition in a sentence, called participle preposition.

Such as.

Considering his honesty, the boss forgave him.

Mr. Kamal didn’t know anything regarding this matter.

6. Disguised preposition: When “a”, “o” act as preposition in lieu of- in, of or on then. “a” or “o” are called disguised preposition.

Examples:-

The king went a hunting. Here, (a = on).

It is five o’clock. Here (o’ = of).

Nipa pays to visit once a month. Here, (a = in a month).

7. Detached preposition: Sometimes we use preposition with interrogative pronoun (who, where etc.). In this case, we put interrogative pronoun at the beginning of the sentence and preposition is put at the end of the sentence. Since we detach preposition from the interrogative pronoun, hence it is called detached preposition.

Example:-

Where have they come from? (Means, from where they have come.)

Who did you dance with?

Who do I play this to?

8. Appropriate preposition: When prepositions place to different words (noun, verb, adjective etc.) and acts noun, verb, adjective etc. called appropriate preposition.

Examples:-

Call in, believe in, abide by, look after, pride in, proud of, consist of, die for, die by etc.

Here will be sompe pictures

Above diagrams, indicate the place of some important prepositions.

1. The circle is out the box (static preposition.)

2. The ball is behind the box (static preposition.)

3. The circle is in front of the box (static preposition.)

4. The ball is above the 3-D box (static preposition.)

5. The ball is in the 3-D box (static preposition.)

6. The ball is beside the 3-D box (static preposition.)

7. The ball is below the 3-D box (static preposition.)

8. The ball is out of the box (dynamic preposition.)

9. The ball is going to through the box (dynamic preposition.)

10. The circle is on the box (static preposition.)

11. The ball is entering into the box (dynamic preposition.)

12. The double bar is over the box (dynamic preposition.)

13. The single bar is under the box (dynamic preposition.)

14. The ball jumping onto the box (dynamic preposition.)

However, preposition also can be divided into two general categories

1. Single-word/simple preposition

2. Compound/multi-word preposition

List of simple preposition

Abroad
Above
About
Across
After (also conjunction)
Against
Along
Alongside
Amid
Amidst (poetic)
Among
Amongst (poetic)
Anti
Around
As (also conjunction)
Astride
At
Atop
Bar
Barring
Before (also conjunction)
Behind
Below
Beneath
Beside
Besides
Between
Beyond
But (also conjunction)
By
Circa
Concerning
Considering
Counting
Cum
Despite
Down
During
Except
Excepting
Excluding
Following
For (also conjunction)
From
Given
Gone (UK)
In
Into
Including
Inside
Less
Like
Minus
Near
Notwithstanding
Of
Off
On
Onto (US)
Out
Outside
Over
Past
Per
Pro
Pending
Plus
Re
Regarding
Respecting
Round
Save (formal)
Saving (formal)
Since (also conjunction)
Than (also conjunction)
To
Till (also conjunction)
Through
Thru (US)
Throughout
Toward
Towards
Touching
Under
Under
Underneath
Unlike
Until (also conjunction)
Up
Upon (formal)
Versus
Via
With
Within
Without Without etc.

List of complex preposition

According to
A la (from French)
Along with
Apart from
As for
Aside from
As per
As to
Ahead of
As far as
As opposite to
At that point in time
At this point in time
Because of
By virtue of
By means of
Back from
But for
Back to
By reason of
Contrary to
Close to
Forward of
Further to
In addition to
In between
In case of
In face of
In favour of
In front of
In regard to
In relation to
In receipt of
In terms of
In routine fashion
Instead of
In light of
In back of
In order to
In according to
In a manner similar to
In close proximity with
In excess to
Near to
Next to
On account of
On behalf of
On board
On to (UK)
Regardless of
Save for
Similar to
Subsequent to
Thanks to
Together with
Up against
Up to
Vis-à-vis (from French)
With reference to
With regard to
With a view to
With respect to etc.

Uses of preposition

At

Rule-1: We use “at” before a small place.

Examples:-

At Horipur.

At Polashpur.

At shibnagar.

At Luter Char.

At Mirpur etc.

Rule-2: We use “at” denoting “close to”/exact point of place.

Examples:-

At the door.

At the window.

At the bus stop.

At the church.

At the traffic lights.

At the bottom.

At the top.

At the end.

At the Kamalapur.

At the Basabu etc.

Rule-3: We use “at” denoting exact point of time of a day.

Examples:-

At 5.00 pm.

At midnight.

At midday.

At sunset.

At dawn.

At night etc.

Rule-4: We use “at” with public holidays/festivals.

Examples:-

At Christmas.

At Easter.

At Eid day.

At New Year.

At the weekend etc.

Rule-5: We use “at” before the names of group activities.

Examples:-

At a party.

At concern.

At lecture.

At meeting etc.

Rule-6: We use “at” with time/moment/beginning/end/work/particular place etc.

Examples:-

At the time.

At that time.

At the moment.

At the end.

At the beginning.

At work.

At home.

At university.

At school.

At college etc.

Rule-7: We use “at” denoting direction/speed/age/price.

Examples:-

At the age of.

At 12 am.

At me.

At her.

At Taka 25.

At 100 miles an hour.

At a speed of 100km.

At 50 degree Celsius.

At a temperature or 50 degree etc.

Against

Rule-1: We use “against” denoting opposition of something.

We should stand against corruption/bribe/early marriage.

Rule-2: We use “against” comparing with something.

The political situation of Bangladesh is bad against the other countries in the World.

Rule-3: We use “against” denoting prevention of something.

This a strong movement against terrorists.

Rule-4: We use “against” denoting abutment/lean.

Nipa is leaning against the wall.

The stair is against the three.

Above

Rule-1: We use “above” in measurement of temperature and height.

The temperature is above three degree Celsius.

Rule-2: We use “above” in indicating one’s capacity/ability.

He spent above his means.

Nipa did this work above her ability.

Rule-3: We can use “Above” in indicating one thing at the higher level than another.

The moon is above my head.

The balloon is above the suitcase.

Over

Rule-1: When one thing is at the higher level than another, but in a dynamic position, we use “over”.

The bird is flying over my head.

Rule-2: We use “over” to “mean more than” especially indicating “Age and speed”.

He is over eighty.

The car is running over 90km/hour.

Rule-3: We use “over” to men something that crosses other thing/side.

The bridge runs over the river.

The boys are jumping over the wall.

Rule-4: We use “over” when one thing covers/touches another thing.

Jannat put veil over her dress.

The boy put a coat over his red shirt.

In

Rule-1: We use “In” when one thing is situated in another.

We kept the dog in the small room.

We took rest in the class empty house.

Rule-2: We use “on” before vertical and horizontal surface of something.

This picture is drawn on the right side wall.

I saw a tiny woman on this page like you.

This graph is fitted on the front page of this book.

Rule-3: We use “On” denoting any kinds of line.

Dhaka is situated on the bank of buriganga.

Horipur is situated on the bank of Gomoti.

This village is situated on the border between Bangladesh and India.

Rule-4: We use “On” denoting direction/purpose.

She threw the ball on me.

Jannat smiled on me.

Rule-5: We use “On” denoting subject/topic.

This project is on the learning.

This assignment was given on the effect of free recall on learning.

Rule-6: We use “On” denoting continuous time period.

She is going on ahead.

Go on, my friend.

Carry on your business.

Rule-7: We use “On” denoting condition/state.

He is now on the way of Dhaka.

He is on business.

To

Rule-1: We use “To” denoting direction.

I am going to college.

They were going to school.

Rule-2: We use “To” making comparison.

The book is good comparing to other books.

He is inferior to him in age.

Rule-3: We use “To” before a verb as an infinitive in a sentence.

They have to do this work.

He went to hospital to see his grandfather.

Rule-4: We use “To” denoting changing condition/situation.

He is going from bad to worse day by day.

The weather is going to worse.

Rule-5: We use “On” before vertical and horizontal surface of something.

This picture is drawn on the right side.

I saw a tiny woman on this page like you.

This graph is fitted on the front page of this book.

Rule-6: We use “On” denoting any kind of line.

Dhaka is situate on the bank of buriganga.

Horipur is situated on the bank of Gomoti.

Rule-7: We use “On” denoting direction/purposes.

She threw the ball on me. Jannat smiled on me.

Rule-8: we use “On” denoting subject/topic.

This project is on the learning.

This assignment was given on the effect of free recall on learning.

Rule-9: We use “On” denoting continuous time period.

She is going on ahead.

Go on. Friend,. carry on your business.

Rule-10: We use “On” denoting condition/state.

He is now on the way of Dhaka.

He is on business.

To

Rule-1: We use “To” denoting direction.

I am going to college.

They were going to school.

Rule-2: We use “To” making comparison.

The book is good comparing to other books.

He is inferior to him in age.

Rule-3: We use “To” before a verb as an infinitive in a sentence.

They have to do this work.

He went to hospital to see his grandfather.

Rule-4: We use “To” denoting changing condition/situation.

He is going from bad to worse day by day.

The weather is going to worse.

Rule-5: We use “To” denoting time.

I study every day from 6.00 am to 11.00 pm.

They work from 10.00 am to 5.00 pm.

Rule-6: We use “To” denoting place.

He is going from CUmilla to Dhaka.

She is going to Dhaka.

Rule-7: We use “To” denoting obligation to someone.

We have to obey our parents.

It is our duty to obey the law/moral principle.

With

Rule-1: We use “With” denoting doing something by something.

We write with pen. He killed the man with sword.

Rtile-2: We use “With” denoting accompany.

He has come with me to the party.

He will go home with me.

Rule-3: We use “With” denoting the expression “In spite of/though”.

With all his property, he is unhappy.

With his inability, he can’t do anything.

Rule-4: We use “With” denoting relation.

I am no more with him.

He has nothing to do with her.

Rule-5: We use “With” denoting quality/traits of something/someone.

The girl with blue sari is my girlfriend.

The boy with white shirt is stupid.

Rule-6: We use “With” denoting reason of something.

She is trembling with fear.

He is happy with GPA-5.00.

Rule-7: We use “With” denoting partiality.

I am with you.

Our freedom fighters fought with their enemies.

Rule-8: We use “With” denoting the meaning “How something is done”.

He did this unbelievable task with courage and honesty.

He stood against him with bravery.

For

Rule-1: We use “For” denoting reason of something.

He was punished for his mistake.

For his illness, she didn’t go to college.

Rule-2: We use “For” denoting “destination”.

I set out for home.

He starts for Cumilla.

Rule-3: We use “For” denoting time.

He has been reading book for two hours.

They have been playing for three hours.

Rule-4: We use “For” denoting partiality.

I am for you, but your brother is against you.

He stood for me.

Rule-5: We use “For” denoting purpose.

He came to me for some money.

He did this nasty task for his on interest.

Rule-6: We use “For” denoting the meaning “In spite of/despite”.

For his all wealth, he is unhappy.

For her beauty, he wants to be something more.

Of

Rule-1: We use “Of” denoting relation.

This is pen of mine.

The leg of table is broken.

Rule-2: Denoting part of something we use “Of”.

This is the back part of this house.

This is the rotten part of this apple.

Rule-3: We use “Of” denoting source/origin of something.

He comes of noble family.

Joy comes of Munsi family

Rule-4: We use “Of” denoting reason/cause of something.

Of his illness, he didn’t do his homework.

Of his stupidity, he suffered in the long run.

Rule-5: We use “Of” denoting distance.

Our school is about ten kilometers of my house.

That tree is ten meters of me.

Rule-6: We use “Of” denoting selection/choice of something/someone.

He is one of best friend.

He is one of the good students.

Rule-7: We use “Of” when we use uncountable noun as countable one.

I bought a piece of soap.

He got two pieces of good information from his teacher.

I ate two pieces of bread.

About

Rule-1: We use “About” denoting approximation.

He is about to go.

The value of this math is about 12.34.

Rule-2: We use “About” denoting relation/talking about something/someone.

He knows everything about this event.

They talk to him about this issue in details.

After

Rule-1: We use “After” denoting time.

He came in the meeting after me.

She met you after him.

Rule-2: We use “After” repetition of occurrence.

He is working day after day, but he can’t remove his poverty.

Rule-3: We use “After” making comparison.

The girl has taken after her mother.

The boy has taken after his father.

Rule-4: We use “After” denoting the meaning “In accordance with”.

This building name is kept after Mr. Shahid Ullah.

This poem is named after inner meaning.

Rule-5: We use “After” denoting greediness/running after getting something.

He should not run after money.

We should run after being a good man.

Before

Rule-1: We use “Before” denoting previous event/phenomenon.

I knew this before you that it will be happened.

He will reach before you in the meeting.

Rule-2: We use “Before” denoting something situated in front of something/someone.

He kept the ball before his father.

We stood before our opposite team.

Rule-3: We use “Before” denoting time.

The doctor had come before the patient died.

He went there before something happening.

By

Rule-1: we use “By” denoting mean of transportation.

We went Dhaka by bus/train/car.

Rule-2: We use '”By” denoting how something is done.

The snake was killed by a bamboo.

This task was done by him.

Rule-3: We use “By” denoting approximation/bank.

He sat by me.

The house is by a river.

Rule-4: We use “By” denoting successive units of something.

He is going to bad day by day.

He is improving little by little/day by day.

Rule-5: We use “By” making comparison.

Bangladesh won the match against Australia by 7 wickets.