More about verbs and modals

Etymology: The word “verb” comes from Latin word “verbum” means “to speak” and Old French word “verbe” means “action, expresses action”.

Definition: Verbs are the words that express action. From other sense, we can say that verbs are words that say something about a person/thing.

A verb is word used for saying something about a person or a thing. -J.C Nesfield.

Examples: -

Mr. Mamun works in a company.

Hamza can sing.

She is writing a letter.

Features of verbs

1. We can’t think sentence without verb. Every sentence must have verb.

2. Verbs have different forms according to tense.

Examples:-

I eat rice. (Present)

I ate rice. (Past)

I shall eat rice. (Future)

3. Verbs may change with persons.

Examples:-

I read book.

He reads book.

I am going to market.

He is going to market.

4. Some verbs have objects and some haven’t.

Examples:-

Give, explain, bring, make, say, describe etc. (Have object)

Examples:-

Appear, look, taste, tell, fly, cry etc. (Haven't object)

5. Some verbs can be used as both principal and auxiliary verbs.

Examples:-

He is a good student. (Here, is acts as principal verb)

He is going to school. (Here, is acts as auxiliary verb)

6. Some verbs are progressive and some are non-progressive.

Examples: -

Arrive, arrange, buy, bring, build etc. are progressive.

Love, like, see, agree, look, think, listen etc. are non-progressive verbs.

7. Verbs can be used as subject in a sentence.

Examples:-

Walking is a good physical exercise.

Writing makes a man perfect.

8. Verbs can be used as object in a sentence.

Examples:-

Nipa likes writing story.

Joy saw crying in the orphanage.

Classifications of verb

1. Finite verbs

A. Principal verbs

1. Transitive

a. Factitive verbs

b. Quasi-passive verbs

c. Reflexive verbs

d. Reciprocal verbs

2. Intransitive

a. Copulative verbs

b. Cognate verbs

c. Causative verbs

B. Auxiliary verbs

1. Models (Can, shall, must etc.)

2. To do (do, does, did)

3. To be (am, is, and are)

4. To have (have, has)

2. Non-finite verbs

A. Infinitives

a. Simple infinitives

b. Gerundial infinitives

c. Perfect infinitives

d. Split infinitives

e. Bare infinitives

B. Gerunds

a. Nominatives absolute

b. Verbal noun

C. Participles

a. Present participles

b. Past participles

c. Perfect participles

3. Others verbs

a. Progressive verbs

b. Non-progressive verbs

c. Perception verbs

d. Linking verbs

e. Group verbs

f. Impersonal verbs

g. Inchoative verbs

h. Non-conclusive verbs

i. Defective verbs

j. Quasi-passive verbs

A. Finite verbs

Definition: Verbs that express complete senses, ideas, feelings and change their form according to tense, person, number, called finite verbs.

Examples:-

I have eaten rice.

Nipa came yesterday.

John will come here.

There are two kinds of finite verbs

1. Principal verbs.

2. Auxiliary verbs.

Principal verbs: Verbs that can express their complete meanings without the help of any other verbs, called Principal verb.

There are two types of principal verbs

1. Transitive verbs

2. Intransitive verbs

Transitive Verbs

Transitive verbs: Verbs that can’t express their meanings without the help of other verbs, called transitive verbs. In short, verbs having objects or complement, called transitive verbs.

Examples:-

Tania gave me an apple.

He helped me buying book.

There are four types of transitive verbs

a. Factitive verbs

b. Quasi-passive verbs

c. Reflexive verbs

d. Reciprocal verbs

a. Factitive verbs: When transitive verbs can’t express complete meanings albeit, they have objects, depend other words expressing their meaning, called factitive verbs.

N.B. The additional words is known as complement.

Subject Factitive verb Factitive object Complement
We made him captain.
We called him Modu vai
Thus, elect, select, nominate, name, find etc. are factitive verbs.

b. Reflexive verbs: When subject and object of a transitive verb indicates same person/thing, then that transitive verb is known as reflexive verb.

Subject Reflexive verb Reflexive object Other words
He killed himself.
Joy blamed himself for this mistakes.
Thus, consider, help, prepare, hurt, enjoy, absent, keep etc. are reflexive verbs.

c. Quasi-passive verbs: Transitive verbs are those act as passive albeit, they seem too active, called quasi-passive verbs.

Examples:-

Rice sells cheap.

The chair feels hard.

Honey tastes sweet.

Belly smells sweet.

d. Reciprocal verbs: When transitive verbs take reciprocal pronoun as object and show relation between subject and object, called reciprocal verbs.

Subject Reciprocal verb Reciprocal pronoun Other words
Nipa and Tania helped each other doing this work.
The villager fought one another for a piece of land.

Intransitive verbs

Intransitive verbs: Verbs that can express their meanings without the help on any other verbs, called intransitive verbs. In short, verbs without object or complement, called intransitive verbs.

Examples:-

Birds fly in the sky.

Baby cries.

The sun shines.

There are three type of intransitive verbs: (three C’s).

a. Copulative verbs

b. Cognate verbs

c. Causative verbs

a. Copulative verbs: When intransitive verbs can’t express their meanings without the help of other words, they take additional words (complements), and then such intransitive verbs are called copulative verbs.

Subject Verb Complement
Mamun looks smart.
He seems tired.

Thus, to be verbs (is, are, was..), appear, look, seem, fall etc. are copulative verbs.

b. Cognate verbs: When intransitive verbs take objects that are stemmed from those verbs or same kinds of verbs, called cognate verbs.

Subject Cognate verb Cognate object
Kabir ran a race.
She dreamt a good dream.
Nipa slept a sound sleep.
Tania sang a sweet song.
My father died an untimely death.
He drank cold drink.

c. Causative verbs: Causative verbs are those verbs which subjects accomplish tasks/meanings with the help of other persons/things.

Verbs Causative verbs Example
Eat feed Mother feeds the baby.
Know inform Kari informed me about this job.
Learn teach Mr. Kuddus taught them a good lesson.
See show He showed the way.

Note: Most of the verbs have no causative forms. To make them causative, we can use these following verbs before them. < Make, get, let, have, cause, help etc.

Examples:-

Verbs Causative verbs

Write = Tania writes a letter.

(Tania, herself, writes the letter)

Tania makes Nipa write a letter.

(Nipa writes letter, not Tania.)

Read = Grandfather readsa book.

(Grandfather, himself, reads the book)

Grandfather gets me to read a book.

(I read book, not grandfather.)

Do = I do the work.

(I, myself, do the work)

I let him to do the work.

(He does the work, not subject)

Change = She changed her mind.

(She, herself, changed the mind)

She had her mind changed.

(Mind is changed by others, not subject)

Open = Nipa opened her eyes.

(Nipa, herself, opened eyes )

Nipa caused her eye open.

(someone opens Nipa’s eyes, not she)

Bring = I brought a table.

(I, myself, brought table)

Mamun helped me bring/to bring a table.

(Mamun brought the table)

Structure

1. Subject + causative verbs + someone + verb word/infinitive + other words. Or

2. Subject + causative verbs + something + verb word/participle + other words.

Note: We don’t use infinitive (to) between “make” and verb word.

Example:-

I made him write a letter. (Not, to write a letter)

There are some verbs, can be used as both transitive and intransitive:

Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
Billal flies a kite in the sky. Birds fly in the sky.
Kari runs a hotel. The bay is running in the yard.
Kabir opened the window. The window opened, suddenly.
The driver stopped the bus. The bus stopped near a tree.
Hamza rang the bell. The bell rang loudly.

B. Auxiliary verbs:

a. to be verbs ( am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been)

Examples:-

I am going to college.

Alif is singing.

Nipa was dancing.

They were playing.

b. to do verbs ( do, does, did).

Examples:-

She does not study well.

I didn’t do this work.

c. to have verbs ( have, has, had).

Examples:-

I have done this work.

He has done this nasty deed.

d. Model verbs (can, may, shall, will, must etc.).

Examples:-

I can sing.

He may be good player.

Modal auxiliary in details:

Can/be able to

1. We use “can” denoting ability to do something.

Niloy can operate computer.

Lima can sing very well.

2. Denoting possibility, we use “can”.

He can come here tomorrow.

3. We use “can” with present and past tense, but use “be able to” in the perfect tense.

He will be able to do this work.

Joy will be able to join us.

4. We use “be able to” in the perfect tense.

I have been able to recite a poem.

5. Negative form is “can’t” and “not be able to”, respectively.

He can’t write.

He won’t be able to go college.

She hasn’t been able to do this work.

6. We can use both “can” and “be able to” has infinitive.

If you go market, you can get fine rice.

Or, you will be able to get fine rice.

7. “Can” has no infinitive but, “be able to” has infinitive.

He can write. (Not to write)

He will be able to write.

8. We use “can” giving permission

You can meet Mr. H.K Joy.

Could/was or were able to

1. “Could” is the past form of “can” and used expressing ability to do something in the past.

He could sing well.

Nipa could dance.

Rahim could climb up tree.

2. Negative form is “couldn’t”.

Kamal couldn’t swim.

Niha couldn’t speak well.

3. We use “could” in polite request and expressing permission to do something.

Could you give some money, please?

You could go there, if you wanted.

4. We use “could” especially with their following verbs:

Desire, feel, hear, like, dislike, see, smell, taste, remember, understand etc.

He was far away from us and so we couldn’t hear him.

Zabber was very weak but, we could see him when he came here.

5. We use “could” denoting general ability/power to do something in the past, but use “was/were able to” what happened in a particular situation.

He could do this. But,

He was able to do this. That’s meant, he could do this but, he didn’t.

6. We use “could have + past participle form of verbs” meaning someone had ability to do something but, he couldn’t do that, unfortunately.

I could have won the race.

Means, I couldn’t win the race whatever reason for.

Shall Should

1. We use “shall” with future tense.

Example:-

I shall go to market.

N.B. We use “shall/should” with 1st person and “will/would” 2nd and 3rd person.

1. Generally, “should” is use as the past form of “shall” in with indirect narration.

Example:-

He said to me that I should help him.

N.B. Negative form is “shouldn’t”.

2. We use “shall” with imperative tag question when it begins with “let’s/let us” and denotes proposal or suggestion.

Examples:-

Let’s have a walk shall we?

Let’s sit under this tree, shall we?

2. We use “should” giving advice of what is good to do for someone.

Examples:-

You should obey your parents.

He should do this job.

3. We use “shall” with obligation, promise, desire, threat, determination, advice, order with 2nd and 3rd person.

Example:-

They shall sacrifice their live for the sake of country.

He shall win the match.

We can use “should” after these following verbs: demand, insist, propose, recommend, suggest etc.

Examples:-

Tania insisted that she should get A+ in the SSC examination.

Niloy demanded that he should go there.

4. “Shan’t” is the negative form of “shall”.

Examples:-

We shan’t go there.

I shan’t sing.

4. We use “should” with after these following adjectives: funny, interesting, natural, odd, strange, surprised, surprising etc.

Examples:-

I was surprised that Nipa should behave in such a manner.

It’s strange that she should say this.

Will Would

1. We use will with future tense.

Example:-

I will go to cinema hall.

1. We use “would” as the past form of “will” in indirect narration.

Example:-

He told me that he would go to market.

2. We use “will you” to make request and also in imperative tag question when it denotes request.

Examples:-

Will you give me a chance to do this again?

Open the door, will you?

2. We use would to make a polite request.

Examples:-

Would you tell me the actual fact?

Would you come to my house the day after tomorrow?

3. We use “will” with obligation, threat, determination, advice, order, intention etc. with 1st person.

Example:-

I will kill you. I will do this work in three days.

3. We use “would you mind + verb + ing….” To make a request.

Examples: -

Would you mind repeating the matter, please?

Would you mind giving advice about varsity admission?

4. In modern English, we use “will” with all persons.

Examples: -

I will meet my friend.

He will buy a shirt.

They will play football.

You will do this work.

N.B. Negative form is “won’t”

4. We use “would rather/would better + bare infinitive……..” giving advice.

Examples: -

You would better be quiet.

Kamrul would rather meet his friend.

N.B. Negative form is “wouldn’t”

May Might

We use “may” denoting “possibility”

Examples:-

Kamrul may come here.

N.B. Negative form is “may not”.

We also use “might” denoting “possibility.

Examples:-

Kamrul might come here.

N.B. Negative form is “might not/mightn’t”

We use “may” giving “permission”.

Examples:-

You may do this job.

You may go there

You may go there. We also use “might” giving “permission”.

Examples:-

You might buy this car.

You might carry on your job.

We use “may” taking “permission”.

Example:-

May I come in, sir?

May I help you, Joy?

We use “might” denoting “proposal, order/command, and request”.

Example:-

We might go to work.

We use “may” expressing “desire” hope, expectation, will”.

Examples:-

I may get a job.

May Allah help you.

We can use “might” in the same expression.

Examples:-

might get a job.

I might help you.

We use “may/might be + verb + ing…”

Example:-

He may/might be coming here.

We use “might have + v.p.p. form +…” for the past.

Example:-

They might have gone there.

Going to Ought to

We use “be going to” denoting “intention”.

Examples:-

Tania is going to buy a story book.

Nipa was going to shop.

We use “ought to” denoting “obligation, duty, advice etc.”

Examples:-

We ought to do our duties.

We ought to respect our parents.

We can use “be going to” denoting “strong possibility, determination”.

Example:-

I am going to buy a cycle.

We also use “ought to” denoting “strong possibility”.

Examples:-

I am ought to do this work.

He ought to buy a car.

For the past, we use “was/were going to…”.

Example:-

They were going to play football.

For the past, we use “ought to have + v.p.p. form…”

Example:-

We ought to have gone there.

We use “be going to” denoting “prediction”.

Examples:-

It is going to rain.

They are going to win the match.

We use “ought to” emphasizing on the meaning in a sentence.

Example:-

We ought to love our country.

“Be going to” is used for the action that have been already decided to do and “will” is used for the action that have been decided to do at the time of speaking.

Examples:-

He is going to market.

He will go to market.

“Ought to” is used to emphasize and “should” is used in more general sense than “ought to”.

Examples:-

We ought to respect our parents.

We should respect our parents.

Must Have to

“Must” is personal and we use it in expressing our personal feeling.

Example:-

I must go there.

(Because it’s necessary for me)

“Have to” is impersonal and we use it in expressing our impersonal feeling.

Example:-

You have to go there in time.

(Because it’s the rule and situation)

We use “must” in present and future forms.

Examples:-

I must do it now.

I must do it tomorrow.

We use “have to” in all forms.

Examples:-

I have to go now.

I have to go tomorrow.

I had to go yesterday.

We use “must” denoting “obligation”.

Example:-

You must obey your parents.

We use “have to” denoting “determination”.

Example:-

I have to do it tomorrow.

Negative form is “must not of mustn’t”

Example:-

You must not go there.

We use “do/does/did” in questions and “don’t/doesn’t/didn’t” in negative forms.

Examples:-

You don’t have to do it.

Do you have to go there?

We can use “must have + v.p.p..” in past form.

Example:-

Tania must have reached there.

We can use “have got to” instead of “have to”.

Example:-

Nipa have got to sing tomorrow.

Need Dare

We use “need” as model verb in negative and interrogative sentence.

Examples :-

You need come here.

You need not come.

Need Nipa buy a book?

Need he come here?

We use “dare” as model verb in negative interrogative sentence.

Examples :-

How dare you tease me?

He daren’t go there.

We also use “need” as principle verb/ordinary verb.

Example :-

I need some money.

The need shelter.

We also use “dare” as principal/ordinary verb.

Example :-

He didn’t dare to say what he saw.

We can use “need” for giving permission (not doing something).

Example :-

You needn’t go there for this small task and I shall do that.

For past, we use “need not have +..”

Example :-

You need not have helped me.

Had better

We use “had better” for giving “suggestion”.

Examples:-

You had better avoid this bad habit.

We also use “had better” denoting immediate intention.

Examples:-

Tania is working hard.

She had better take a rest.

Negative form: had better not…

Example:-

Kamal had better not abuse Shipu.

Used to

We use “used to” denoting pas habitual fact or regular task done in the past.

Examples:-

I use to walk in the morning (in past, not present).

We also use “used to” for something that was true but, it is not true anymore.

Examples:-

Mamun used to think that the Sun moves round the Earth but, it is not true.

We use “be + used to + verb +ing….”

Examples:-

I was used to going cinema hall.

Negative form: didn’t use to.

Have/have got

Both indicate “possess, own”.

Examples:-

I have/have got a new car.

I had a new car.

We use them both in negative and interrogative sentence.

Examples:-

I haven’t got any story book.

I haven’t any story book.

I don’t have any story book.

Have you got any story book?

Do you have any story book?

Have you any story book?

Be supposed to

“To guess, estimate” something we use “be supposed to..”

Example:-

I am supposed to learn Spanish.

I was supposed to learn Spanish.

We can also use “be used to” what people say.

Example:-

Too much eating is supposed to be bad for our health.

2. Non-finite verbs/absolute

Definition: Verbs that can’t change their forms corresponding to the person and number of a subject and act as noun, adjective or verb in a sentence are called non-finite verbs/absolutes.

Examples:-

Walking is a good form of exercise.

I want to go to America.

They saw a flying bird.

Features:

1. They are stable corresponding to person and number of a subject

2. They act as noun, adjective or verb in a sentence.

3. They act as subject, object, complement in a sentence.

Types of non-finite verbs/absolutes

1. Infinitive

a. Simple/Noun infinitives

b. Gerundial/qualifying infinitives

c. Perfect infinitives

d. Split infinitives

e. Bare infinitives

2. Gerund

a. Verbal noun

b. Nominative absolute

3. Participle

a. Present participles

b. Past participles

c. Perfect participles

1. The infinitive

Definition: Infinitive is composed of “To” plus present form of a verb and acts basically, as noun in a sentence. That means, when we use “To + base form of verb” in a sentence, then the verb with “To” is called infinitive. In short, it is a verbal formed from verb and acts as a noun.

Examples:-

To tell a lie is a great sin.

To walk in the morning is a good exercise.

I want to study in abroad.

Types of infinitives:

a. Simple/Noun infinitives

b. Gerundial/qualifying infinitives

c. Perfect infinitives

d. Split infinitives

e. Bare infinitives

a. Simple/noun infinitives

Definition: When Infinitives act as noun in a sentence, then they are called noun/simple infinitives.

Examples:-

Nipa likes to visit.

Tania loves to gossip.

Anas wants to go to market.

To swim is a good exercise.

Features:

1. Infinitive as a subject of a verb:

To tell a lie is a great sin.

To walk is a good exercise.

To take care of everything is a good way avoiding trouble.

2. Infinitive as an object of a transitive verb:

I like to play football.

Jannat loves to travel historical place.

3. Infinitive as a complement:

It appears to be useless.

She seems to be tired.

Kamal seems to be sad.

He wants me to come to him.

Kamrul demands to pay his due.

4. Infinitive as an adjective:

I need a book to read on the beach.

Here, “to read on the beach” indicates the noun “book”.

Hence, it is the adjective of “need”

5. Infinitive as a part of an adverbial phrase:

Jolly cleaned the mirror to see her face clearly.

Joy came to me to make me understand clearly about the matter.

6. We use infinitive the following verbs:

Decide, hope, need, plan, promise, want, can/can’t afford, would like, like*, start*, love*, be in*, continue*, hate* refer*, stop *, remember* etc.

Note: The asterisk (*) verbs can be followed by a gerund or infinitive.

b. Gerundial/qualifying infinitive

Definition: When infinitive denotes condition, purpose, cause, result, parenthetically etc. then, it is called gerundial or qualifying Infinitive.

Examples.-

I went there to see him.

They came to me to take decision about our test match.

Features:

1. Acts as adverb:

He is too weak to walk.

The water was too salty to drink.

2. Acts as adjective:

There is no time to play with you.

This is the place to make a house.

The house is a nasty place to live in.

3. Denotes purpose:

We came here to stay for two days.

We take exercise to possess a good health.

4. Denotes condition:

You can live in this room for only three days.

Hamza can borrow my book to read for only one day.

5. Denotes cause:

Nipa is happy to get a new dress.

They are surprised to see him on the stage.

6. Denotes result:

He worked hard to be successful.

Mamun went there to receive a letter from his uncle.

7. Parenthetical use: To emphasize on the meaning of a sentence sometimes we use infinitive in that sentence parenthetically (without any relation to that sentence).

To say frankly, he is a great liar.

To speak the truth, they were good football player.

d. Spilt infinitives

Definition: When “To” be used before adverb instead of verb, then this form of infinitives, is called split infinitives.

Example:-

Infinitives Split infinitives
I told Nipa to go to college quickly. I told Nipa to quickly go to college.
Mamun convinced Asad nicely to do the work. Mamun convinced Asad to nicely do the work.
Tania requests Jannat politely to come to her. Tania requests Jannat to politely come to her.
Tushar persuaded his friend nicely to visit the zoo. Tushar persuaded his friend to nicely visit the zoo.
Mr. Kabir teaches us to learn English smoothly. Mr. Kabir teaches us to smoothly learn English.

e. Bare infinitives

Definition: Some verbs that don't follow infinitives called bare infinitives. That means verbs without “To” before they are called bare infinitives.

Examples:-

I can sing.

They may be there.

Let him go there.

I made him laugh.

They help him do this work.

Important features of bare infinitives:

Structure-1: Subject + the following verbs + to (infinitives) + verbs +…..

Verbs follow infinitives:

Agree, appear, ask, arrange, attempt, afford, beg, care, can’t afford, can’t wait, claim, choose, hate, start, demand, decide, desire, expect, fail, grow, guarantee, hope, hesitate, happen, manage, offer, seem, seek, plan, prove, promise, prepare, prevent, turnout, remember, regret, refuse, undertake, wish, want etc.

Examples:-

I hope to go to Japan.

They wanted to play cricket.

They demand to up their payment.

I decided to avoid smoking.

Nipa seems to be happy.

I regret not to help him.

I refuse to take bribe.

She wished to give me a big hand.

He agreed to accompany,

They undertook to protect him in any trouble.

Structure-2: Subject + the following verbs + object + to (infinitives) + verbs +……..

To-infinitives after verb + object

Verbs : Advise, tell, request, command, compel, help, hate, oblige, remind, force, ask, believe, consider, allow, persuade, order, warn, teach, invite, get etc.

Examples:-

I advised him to go there.

He forced me to do this.

I consider him to be a leader.

Nipa warns me not to follow her.

Mr. Kamrul Hasan teaches us to speak English in our daily life.

Structure -3: Subject + the following verbs + for + object + to (infinitives) + verbs +…..

To-infinitives after verb +f or + object

Verbs follow for + object + To-infinitives:

Verbs: Ask, arrange, appeal, long, pay, wish, wait etc.

Examples:-

They arranged a festival for me to surprise.

I asked for a book to borrow for two days.

They are waiting for me to receive.

Structure -4: Subject + verb + the following nouns + to (infinitives) + verbs +….

To-infinitives after nouns

Nouns: Ability, ambition, attempt, decision, desire, determination, eagerness, effort, failure, offer, plan, promise, proposal, refusal, request, scheme, willingness, wish, pleasure etc.

Examples:-

They didn’t take any decision to solve this problem.

Nipa showed little eagerness to accept the offer.

Tania gave me an offer to make me happy.

Mamun has at ambition to be rich.

Structure-5: Subject + verb + adjective + to (infinitives) + verbs +….

To-infinitives after verb + adjective

Adjectives : able, afraid, agreeable, amazed, amusing, angry, anxious, ashamed, astonished, bound, careful, content, crazy, cruel, difficult, delighted, determined, eager, easy, excited, fortunate, free, glad, grateful, happy, hard, interested, keen, kind, lucky, mad, nervous, nice, pleasant, leased, prepared, prompt, proud, qualified, quick, ready, right, rude, rough, rigid, sad, sorrow, sorry, safe, selfish, sensible, shocked, silly, stupid, sure, surprised, thankful, thrilled, welcome, wicked, wise, wonderful, wrong etc.

Examples:-

He is able to do this difficult task.

This is amusing to see that flying bird.

He is crazy to get a bicycle on his birthday.

It was difficult to achieve that goal.

I am grateful to be friend like you.

They are pleased to visit such interesting place.

She is lucky to be a great doctor.

I am sorrow to hurt you.

I am sad to hear that news.

It is right/wrong to go there.

He is stupid to do such nasty task.

It is thrilled to make a journey on the hill.

Structure-6: Subject + verb + question words + to (infinitives) + verbs +…..

To-infinitives after question words.

Verbs follow Q.Ws: Know, learn, discover, think, discuss, decide, consider, teach, show, explain, remember, forget, ask, understand, wonder etc.

Examples:-

I don’t know how to swim.

I am thinking where to go to get him.

He explained how to do it.

Omission of infinitives

1. We can’t use “To-infinitive” after model auxiliary verbs, such as, shall, should, will, would, can, could, may, might, must, need, dare etc.

Examples:-

I can sing well.

Tania could pass in the examination. (Not, can to sing or could to pass)

They will play football.

He would come here. (Not, will to play or would to come)

Note: When “Need” and “Dare” are used as main verb we can use “To-infinitive” but, when, model auxiliary verb we can’t use “To-infinitive”. That means we use bare infinitive.

Examples:-

Harrish needs to go there for his mother. (Here, need is main verb)

Harrish need not go there for his mother. (Here, need is model auxiliary verb)

2. After the following expressions we can’t use “To-infinitive”

As soon as, except, like, better, had better, had rather, had sooner, would rather, would better, would sooner, no sooner, than, rather than, cannot but etc.

Examples:-

You had better do this job.

They would better play this match.

I would rather die than steal.

3. After the following verbs we can't use “To-infinitive”

Hear, see, know, let, make, feel, help, watch, love, like, observe, notice, understand, allow, appear, kiss, risk, appreciate etc.

Examples:-

Nupur heard the sound goes up.

Jannat made him write a letter.

I noticed him on the way.

Note: For make, let, see, hear, help, and know, we can use “To-infinitive” in the passive form.

Examples:-

They were helped to do the work.

I was made to recite the poem.

4. Some important notes:

Note:-1

Tend, manage and fail:

1. We use “tend to” for things that usually happen.

We tend to get up early in the morning.

I tend to do the work in time.

2. We use manage to for being able to do something.

Fortunately, we managed to get the bus.

Dr. Ali Ahsan managed to find out the relation- ship among the variables under the investigation, but failed to draw accurate inference.

3. We use fail to for the things that don’t happen.

We failed to draw accurate inference.

Note:-2

We use “To-infinitive” after the following expressions: Would like, would love, would hate, would prefer, would abhor, would choose etc.

Examples:-

I would like to play cricket.

She would love to go out.

They would prefer to visit the historical places.

Jolly would hate to talk to me.

Note:-3

We can sometimes use more than one To- infinitive/ing -form in a sentence.

Examples:-

I decided to refuse to help him.

I wanted to avoid hurting him.

Different forms of infinitives

1. Present infinitive: When we use “To + base form of verbs”, then this form is called present infinitive.

Examples:-

I promise to go there.

To walk is a good exercise.

He went to Dhaka to see his mother.

2. Continuous infinitive: When we use “To be + verb-ing form” in a sentence, then this form of infinitive is called continuous or progressive infinitive.

Examples:-

I went to Dhaka to be working in an organization.

She saw me to be walking on the river bank

3. Perfect infinitive: When we use “To have + verb (past participle form)”, then this structure of infinitive is called perfect infinitive. Perfect infinitive denotes meaning like perfect tense.

Examples:-

I waited to have received you.

They went to field to have played football.

Features of perfect infinitives:

a. It expresses somewhat different meaning from present infinitives and denotes strong and astonishing meaning.

Examples:-

She is surprised to meet you.

(Here, she didn’t meet you at the time of speaking.)

She is surprised to have met you.

(Here, she has already met you.)

b. We, generally, use perfect infinitives after the past form of the following verbs:

Desire, hope, intend, wish, want, command, order, determine etc.

Examples:-

Krish desired to have improved his job by hard working.

Imrul hoped to have gone to London for higher study.

Anis wanted to have gained riches.

c. We use perfect infinitives with the passive forms of the following verbs: Hear, believe, consider, think, suppose, say, report, repute, understand etc.

Examples:-

He was thought to have killed on 5th January.

I am believed to have done this work is difficult.

d. For possibility, we use perfect infinitives with the model verbs, such as, may, might, can, could, would etc.

Examples:-

Nipa might have gone there in time.

Jannat would have done the work.

e. We use perfect infinitives denoting “obligation” and “compulsion” with “should” and “ought to”.

Examples:-

Kamal should have performed well in the field.

Guppy ought to have met me soon.

Things to remember:

1. An infinitive never shows the tense. Only, the first verb shows the tense.

2. Infinitive, basically, acts as a noun in a sentence. However, sometimes may be acted as adverb or adjective.

3. Infinitive is composed of “To + base form of a verb” and can act as subject, object or complement.

4. Infinitive phrases only require a comma when the infinitive phrase is used as an adverbial phrase introduce the main verb

2. Gerund

Definition: A gerund is a verbal formed from a verb and functioning as a part of speech, especially as a noun. Gerund is formed when an “-ing” ending is added to a verb and that form acts as a noun in a sentence.

Examples:-

Waking up early is always difficult.

Walking is a good exercise.

Swimming is a good exercise.

Features of gerunds:

1. Act as subject:

Running is a difficult form of exercise for older.

Walking is an easy form of exercise for all ages.

2. Act as object:

Nipa love watching television.

Niloy sent surprising gift for me on my birthday.

3. Act as complement:

Her ambition is going to London.

My grandfather’s hobby is writing and reading.

4. Act as the object of a preposition:

By training every day, Ali Mazumdar won a gold medal.

She is afraid of being lost the game.

5. Act as the part of compound noun:

I like that shopping-mall.

This is our washing-room.

This is my reading-room.

6. We use gerunds with the following verbs:

Avoid, admit, allow, appear, confess, mention, excuse, face, give up, stop, start, suggest, enjoy, finish, keep, quit, miss, consider, practice, love, like, continue, hate, risk, prepare, deny, dislike, forbid, resist, permit, can’t stand, can’t help, be used to, be good at, look forward to, with a view to, don’t, mind, go + verb-ing, be interested in, be bad at, feel like etc.

Examples:-

We stopped playing.

They started playing cricket after a rest.

I hate gambling.

Don’t mind going so far.

She can’t help laughing.

I feel like paining.

I love gossiping.

Nominative absolute

Definition: When a participle is not related to the subject of a finite-verb, but to the another subject in a sentence, then that participle is known as nominative absolute. Gerunds act as the nominative absolute in a sentence.

Examples:-

The water being salty, we could not drink it.

The condition having fine, we went outside for walking.

They being disagreed, we didn’t go so far about this issue.

The situation being fair, we went there and made our tent.

The verbal noun

Definition: When we use “The” before “Gerund” and “Of” after it, then this form of usage is known as verbal noun. This form of gerund acts only as a noun.

Examples:-

The reading of book is a good habit.

The speaking of English is a good way to learn English

Different among the infinitives, gerunds and verbal noun:

Infinitives Gerunds Verbal noun

A. They accomplish the function of noun.

Example:-

To read book is a good habit.

A. They accomplish the function of verb and noun.

Example:-

Reading book is a good habit.

A. They accomplish the function of noun only.

Example:-

The reading of book is a good habit.

B. They may possess object.

Example:-

She loves to read book. (object)

B. They may possess object.

Example:-

She loves reading book. (object)

B. They don’t possess any object.

Example:-

They reading of book is a good habit. (no, object)

Note: There is no difference among in the meaning, but in the structure.

Some important structure

Structure-1: Verb + preposition + verb + ing….

Gerunds after verb + preposition

Verbs + preposition: Abstain from, admit to, aim at, agree with, assist in, approve of, believe in, benefit from, care for, confess to, concentrate on, dream of, depend on, give up, go on, carry on, keep on, insist on, hopeful of, object to, rely on, put off, refrain from, succeed in, think of, prevent from, proud of etc.

Examples:-

I aim at being a doctor.

You can keep on doing this business.

I dream of getting a good job with higher salary.

He gave up puffing smoking.

They thought of playing in the wet field.

The company didn’t approve of leaving it.

Put the case off running.

Structure-2: Adjective + preposition + verb-ing…..

Gerunds after adjective + preposition

Adjectives + prepositions : afraid of, angry about/at, amazed at, annoyed about/at, anxious about, ashamed of, aware of, bored with, fed up, keep on, fond of, nervous of, happy with, famous for, content with, good at, ready for, pleased at, surprised at, interested in, satisfied with, worried about, sorry for etc.

Examples:-

I am afraid of failing in the race.

My mother is worried about coming round.

The girl is bored with teasing by the bad boys.

He was nervous of going up by plane.

She is fond of eating apple.

We are ashamed of offering such comment.

I am surprised at meeting with you.

Structure-3: Verb + object + verb-ing….

Gerunds after verb + object

Verbs: Enjoy, resist, see, save, risk, like, miss, love, mean, mention, mind, find, excuse, stope, justify, tolerate, understand, hate, imagine, can’t help, prefer, involve, forget, prevent etc.

Examples:-

I saw him going to cinema hall.

I can’t imagine identifying her face.

She don’t mind going outside.

Mamun forgot taking his baggage.

Structure-4: Linking words + verb-ing form….

Gerunds after linking words

Linking words: After, before, though, although, since, when, while etc.

Examples:-

You should always lock the door when leaving your room.

Maksu was singing while sitting in a traffic jam.

Structure-5: Preposition + verb-ing form…..

Gerunds after prepositions

Prepositions: Against, as a result of, as well as, besides, by, despite, for from, how, about, in favour of, in spite of, instead of, on, what about, without, instead of, how about etc.

Note: We use “what/how about + verb-ing” to make a suggestion.

Special note: We can use both To-infinitives and verb-ing form after the following verbs:

Verbs To-infinitives Verb-ing
Learn, love, like, start, begin, stop, hate, propose, attempt, prefer, try, neglect, forget, intend, continue etc.

Nipa likes to watch movie.

Jannat hates to play card.

She neglected to take care of her child.

Nipa likes watching movie.

Jannat hates playing card.

She neglected taking care of her child.

Special note: We use both To-infinitives and verb-ing form after the following adjectives:

Adjectives To-infinitives Verb-ing
Aim, amazed, surprised, angry, satisfied, content, ready, annoyed, grateful, thankful etc.

I am surprised to find my lost money bag.

I am grateful to help me to him.

I am surprised at finding my lost money bag.

I am grateful for helping me to him.

Special note: When “Like” means “fondness” we use “To-infinitives” and when it means “enjoy” we use verb-ing form.

Examples:-

Nipa likes to watch English movie. (Means fondness)

Nipa likes watching English movie. (Means enjoy)

Things to remember:

1. Gerunds function as verb and noun.

2. They function as subject, object and complement.

3. Generally, they don’t require commas.

4. They may have object.

Examples:-

Tafseen eats hotchpotch instead of rice.

As a result of losing my job, I am completely in trouble.

How about giving us some help?

3. The participle

Definition: When “verb” functions of a verb as well as of an adjective in a sentence, then this “form” is called participle.

Examples:-

Jannat is a learned woman.

One day she went to the open field and saw many flying birds.

Seeing those, she was surprised because some birds were singing.

Then, she understood, those were singing birds.

Here, learned, flying, surprised and singing are known as participle because of their functions as both verb and adjective.

Types of participle

a. Present participle

b. Past participle

c. Perfect participle

a. The present participle

Definition: When “verb+ing-form” of the verb functions as both verb and adjectives in a sentence, then this form of verb is called present participle.

Features:

1. Helps to compose of continue tense.

Nipu is going to market.

Alif and his friends are playing football.

2. Acts as an attributive adjective:

My grandma told an interesting story.

They were very disgusting persons.

She was an amusing singer.

This is charming scenery.

3. Acts as predicative adjective:

The persons were disgusting.

The story was very interesting.

The singer was very amusing.

4. Present participle can be used in a sentence without relation to the finite verb:

The water being salty, we could not drink it.

The field having fine, we could played.

5. When same subject performs two tasks together, we use verb-ing form for the later:

Completing my homework, I went to marked.

Going to market, I bought fish and vegetables.

6. After a preposition, we use verb-ing form, not To-infinitives:

I am afraid of going there alone.

So, I went there with my father instead of lonely.

7. Some present participle acts as preposition in a sentence:

Considering, allowing, regarding, speaking, referring, granting, resulting etc.

Examples:-

Considering his honesty, the boss forgave him.

Regarding the matter, Mr. Asad went to village and solved the problem.

8. Some participle have two forms of adjective:

Adjectives ending-ing (present participle) Adjectives ending-ed (past participle)
Alarming: what an alarming noise! Alarmed: I was alarmed by the loud bang.
Amusing: The TV programme is really amusing. Amused: I was amused by this song.
Boring: He is boring person. Bored: She was bored with Hasan.
Confusing: The instructions were very confusing. Confused: Nipa was confused hearing different of same question.
Depressing: This weather is very depressing. Depressed: I was feeling depressed and so stayed at home.
Embarrassing: That was the most embarrassing photo! Embarrassed: Harmesh was really embarrassed when he fell over his girlfriend.
Exciting: This is an exciting game. Excited: I’m so excited today.
Exhausting: I have this exhausting task. Exhausted: Julie was so exhausted after her final examination.
Fascinating: I saw a fascinating girl. Fascinated: She is fascinated girl.
Frightening: It was a frightening movie. Frightened: That was a frightened night!
Frustrating: It’s frustrating when we heard her failure in the examination. Frustrated: Tania was frustrated about her bad English.
Interesting: I heard an interesting story. Interested: He is interested in this issue.
Overwhelming: Dhaka is a bit overwhelming city as it is so noisy and busy. Overwhelmed: Dhaka is an overwhelmed city.
Relaxing: We were searching for relaxing place after a long walk. Relaxed: She was so relaxed under the tree.
Satisfying: It is not a satisfying job that you do. Satisfied: I’m satisfied with my present status.
Shocking: The shocking news made me thought. Shocked: I was shocked when my colleague died.
Terrifying: This is a terrifying dog. Terrified: John saw a terrified accident.
Thrilling: It is a thrilling music. Thrilled: Mamun was thrilled to win the prize.
Tiring: My job is very tiring. Tired: Niloy was too tired to walk.

b. Past participle

Definition: When the past simple form of a verb functions of a verb as well as of an adjective, then this form is called past participle.

Examples:-

He is learned man.

His father is a retired police officer and mother is a cared housewife.

They are very interested in creative work.

Features of past participle:

1. Helps to make perfect tense:

I have done the work.

She has gone to college.

Asad has come to me for book.

They had played cricket.

Riya had arrived in time in the meeting.

2. Acts as attributive adjective:

I had enjoyed an excited game.

It will be amused event.

She is a learned woman.

3. Acts as predicative adjective:

The game was excited.

The event will be amused.

The woman is learned.

c. The prfect participle

Definition: When we use “having” before the past participle form of the verb, then this form with “having” is called perfect participle.

Examples:-

Having gone to college, they quarrelled with the other students.

Having done the work, we took a rest.

Having arrived at home, I saw my mother asleep.