Etymology: The term “Article” has come from the Latin word “Articulus” means “A small division, a joint, to fit together.”
Definition: Word that denotes somebody or something definitely or indefinitely is called article. In other word, A, an, the, are known as article.
I know the man in red shirt.
He is an MA.
The earth moves round the sun.
He is a teacher.
Types of articles
There are two types of article
1. Indefinite article.
2. Definite article.
1. Indefinite article: When article denotes something of somebody indefinitely or non-specifically, then that is called indefinite article.
In short, A, an, are called indefinite article.
I have an umbrella.
He ate an apple.
I saw a lame man yesterday.
This is a book.
2. Definite article: When article denotes something or somebody definitely, then that is called definite article. In short, “The” is called definite article.
The earth moves round the sun.
The poor is always unhappy.
The rich is always happy.
Rules for “A and An”
Rule-1: Generally, we use, “A” before the word that starts with consonant (b, c, d etc.) and “An” before the word that starts with vowel.
I saw a bird.
This is a good story book.
He have a big hand.
I sang a song and my mother gave me an apple.
Rule-2: When we indicate a person of thing indefinitely, we use “A/An”.
Azad went to hospital. There, he experienced something odd. An old lady was crying for her money not for her sick husband. This tells a true thing to us that love base on money today.
Rule-3: We can use “a/an” with singular countable noun.
I had a banana.
I bought an umbrella.
Nipa ate a guava.
Rahim has a dog which is very cute.
Rule-4: We use “a/an” before an unknown person or title.
An Islam came here to see you, but you didn’t present. After sometime, a Chowdhury came and Islam went away with him.
N:B: Without “a/an” it is meant that speaker knew the person.
Rule-5: Denoting same classes of thing/person, we use “A/an”.
Birds of a feather flock together.
They are the same group of people.
Rule-6: We use “A/an” denoting “business or occupation or profession”.
Mr. Kamal is a doctor.
His wife is a teacher.
His father, Mr. Kalim Uddin, was an engineer and mother was a homemaker.
Rule-7: We use “A/an” denoting "Unit".
Ten miles is a long way. So, we used to go school four times a week. We can walk four miles an hour.
Rule-8: We use “A” denoting the same classes of word.
I bought a dozen of bananas. I gave the seller a hundred taka note and he gave back twenty taka only.
Rule-9: We use “A/an” denoting “Each/per”.
We visit to my grandmother once a week. My cousin visits to us twice a month.
Rule-10: We use “A/an” denoting something as a whole/overall.
A dog is a faithful animal.
A cow is a domestic animal.
Rule-11: We use “A” with the following words: few, little, great deal of, lot of, great many, good many etc.
I have a few friends.
Hasan has a lot of friends.
We always do better and do a great deal of works for our locality.
Rule-12: We use “A” before the words, such as, pair, score, dozen, hundred, thousand, billion etc.
I bought a dozen of bananas.
When I went to market, I saw a hundred of people.
Rule-13: We use “A/an” after the words, such as, quite, merely, such, not, rather, but, many etc. when they are used with singular common noun.
Federer was merely a child when Nancy met him in 2000. Now, he is such a boy that is beyond imagination.
Rule-14: We use “A” before “most” when it means “Very” in a sentence.
Last night, I heard a most interesting story from my grandmother. I think it was a most scared one in my life.
Rule-15: We use “A/an” before verb that acts as a noun in a sentence.
After doing hard work, I took a rest under a big tree. When I finished my work, I had gone to river for a swim.
Rule-16: We use “A/an” with exclamatory sentence, particularly, when that sentence begins with “what”.
What a beautiful bird it is!
What a nice girl she is!
What a weird sight it was!
What an awful behavior she did!
Rule-17: We use “A” with musical instruments when those musical instruments take this group verb “play on”.
Nipa plays on a piano.
She also can play on a harmonium. Even she can play on a flute.
Rule-18: We use “An” before the word beginning with “H” if it sounds like “vowel” or its sound remains silent.
The man, died on 20th January, 2015, was an honest man. He was only an heir of his father.
Rule-19: We use “A” before the words beginning with “U/O” when they sound like their own.
He went to a university to know about admission procedure. Then, a one-eyed man gave him a useful book about that information. When he left the campus of the university, he gave him (the man) a hundred taka note.
Rule-20: We use “An” before the word beginning with “U” if it sounds like “A/un”.
It is an uncountable noun.
Javed stole an umbrella.
He is an unknown person to us.
Rule-21: We use “A” or “An” before the following words, hospital, hotel, humble, historian etc.
He is a/an historian.
He is looking for a/an hotel to spend the night.
Rule-22: We use “A” with the following phrases.
|In a hurry, in a fix, with a view to, in a body, at a glance, at a time, as a matter of fact, a good marry, in a nut shell, bald as a coot, cast a shadow, catch a cold etc.|
I went to hospital with a view to seeing her as she was sick.
Last Friday she caught a bad cold.
Rule-23: We use “An” with the following abbreviations when the initial letter of these abbreviations sound like vowel.
Mr. Gegrry is an M.B.B.S doctor.
He is also an F.R.C.S on the other hand, his brother Mr. Galileo, is an M.Sc in computer science.
Rule-24: We use “A” with the following abbreviations when the initial letterof these abbreviations sounds like consonant.
Asad in a B.B.A.
Didar is a B.Com.
On the other hand, Farid is a B.S.S in social science.
Rule-25: When abstract noun is used as common noun in a sentence, then we use “A/An” with that.
Mr. Clarke is really a smart.
He is also a mystery in our village.
It is seemed to be a miracle.
Rule-26: When more than two adjectives indicate the same person or thing or only one person or thing in a sentence, then we use “A/An” before the first adjective.
Mr. David always put on an expensive and gorgeous dress.
He is a nice and smart person.
Rule-27: Different adjectives indicates different persons or things in a sentence, then, we use “A/An” before each adjective.
I have a red and a black shirt.
Nipa has a blue and green dress.
Use of definite article “The”
Rule-1: We use “The” with all kinds of nouns when we talk about specific thing or person.
I have a book.
The book was very interesting.
I know the man who is going to market.
Rule-2: We use “The” before nouns mentioned for the second time.
We were going to cinema hall. A new movie had been released. When we had arrived at the cinema hall, it was closed. We, then, had come to know the reason why that had been off.
Rule-3: We use “The” before the nouns which are unique.
The earth moves round the sun.
The mars has red sky.
The moon is very charming at mid night.
Rule-4: We use “The” before singular nouns meaning the entire nation or class.
The dog is a faithful animal.
The crow is a nasty bird.
The cow is a domestic animal.
Rule-5: We use “The” before the names of groups of islands and states.
The British Isles.
The West Indies.
The Andaman etc.
The UK etc.
Rule-6: We use “The” before morning/afternoon/evening etc. when preposition “In” follows them.
I went to village and met my friend in the noon/afternoon/evening.
Rule-7: “The” is used before names of deserts.
The Gobi, The Sahara, The Arabian Desert etc.
Rule-8: “The” is used before names of musical instruments.
The Piano, The Violin, The Harmonium etc.
Rule-9: “The” is not used before names of countries, but there are some country the Netherlands, the Argentine, the Vatican City, the Sudan.
Nipa and Dipa went to the Netherlands and they will also go to the Argentina.
Rule-10: We use “The” before names of rivers.
The Amazon, the Meghna, the Padma, the Jamuna, the Thames, the Nile etc.
Rule-11: “The” is used before names of holy books.
The Quran, the Bible, the Gita, the Vedas etc.
Rule-12: “The” is used before names of famous buildings.
The Twin Tower, The Taj Mahal, The Manhattan, The world Trade Centre etc.
Rule-13: “The” is used before names of trains.
The Rangpur Express, the Rajdhani Express, the Mahanagar Express etc.
Rule-14: “The” is used before names of ships.
The Titanic, the M.V. Akbar, the M.V. Sufian etc.
Rule-15: “The” is used before names of seas.
The Mediterranean, The Red sea etc.
Rule-16: “The” is used before names of oceans.
The Atlantic, The Pacific, The Indian ocean etc.
Rule-17: “The” is used before names of aero planes.
The Bangladesh Biman, The Concord, The Boeing 747 etc.
Rule-18: “The” is used before names of spacecraft’s.
Rule-19: “The” is used before names of gulfs.
The Bay of Bengal, the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Mexico etc.
Rule-20: “The” is used before names of newspapers.
The Ittefaq, the Independence, the Times, the Observer etc.
Rule-21: “The” is used before names of canals/watercourses/straits etc.
The Panama Canal, the Suez Canal, the Channel etc.
Rule-22: “The” is used before names of mountain ranges.
The Himalayas, the Alps, the Rocky Mountains, the Andes etc.
Rule-23: “The” is used before names of directions.
The North, The south, The East, The West.
Rule-24: “The” is used before names of united states/collective countries.
The USA, The UK etc.
Rule-25: “The” is used before names of nations.
The Bengali, the English, the British, the American etc.
Rule-26: “The” is used before names of roads.
The Shahid Faruq Road, The Secretariat Road, The Tupkhana road etc.
Rule-27: We use “The” with uncountable nouns when we talk about specificity.
The water of this pond is very dirty.
We can drink the water.
The rice of Barishal is famous in our country.
Rule-28: We use “The” before consecutive numbers.
She is the first girl in our class.
He is the second boy in our class.
Tania is the third girl in this department.
Rule-29: We use “The” with superlative degrees.
She is the most beautiful girl ever I have seen.
Akbar is the greatest conqueror.
Rule-30: We use “The” with common nouns when they act as abstract nouns in a sentence.
The mother rose in her to see the little girl.
We are unable to remove the beast from him.
Rule-31: We use “The” with adjectives when they act as common nouns in a sentence.
The poor always suffer.
The rich always live in peace.
The educated man is always not good.
Rule-32: We sometimes can use “The” as possessive adjectives before common nouns.
He hurt Jamal by the hand.
The headmaster removed the characterless teacher by the moral word.
Rule-33: We can also use “The” with proper nouns when they are modified by adjectives/adjective clause/adjectives phrases.
The great Akbar was a mighty ruler.
Nipa is the girl who never talk to me even other girls do.
Rule-34: we use “The” with some meaningful geographical areas.
The Punjab, the Desean, the Kashmir, the Middle East, the Soviet Union etc.
Rule-35: We use “The” with comparative degree when they act as an adverb in a sentence.
The more you read, the more you will learn.
The more you engage in writings, the more you will improve.
Rule-36: We use “The” before names of particular person or thing when we make comparison with another particular person or thing.
Nazrul is the Byron of Bangladesh.
Narayanganj is the Dundee of Bangladesh.
Rule-37: We use “The” with nouns which denote profession/occupation.
He joined the Army. He joined the Bar. We called the doctor.
N: B: But “The” is not used in the following expression:
Mr./Mrs./Captain/Doctor/Princess/Aunt/Uncle etc. + a name without “The”.
We called Doctor Jannat/Tania/Mamun etc. Like Uncle Ali/Aunt Sabina/Captain Kallis/Mr. Nova etc.
Rule-38: “The” is not used before names of diseases, but there are some exceptions: the gout, the measles, the mumps.
He suffers from the gout/measles/mumps.
Rule-39: “The” is used before names of historical events.
The World War I, The World II, The Liberation War of Bangladesh etc.
Rule-40: “The” is used before numerical numbers when they denote “Unit” of something.
He gave the 10 taka note. They borrowed the 1000 taka Note.
Rule-41: “The” is used after “Half/All/Both” when they follow nouns.
The boy spent all the money.
Alit ate both the apples.
Half of the books were unorganized
Rule-42: “The” is used before collective nouns when they act as plural number.
The people know who involve in politics in Bangladesh.
The majority people in our village are poor as well as illiterate.
The police arrested an innocent young.
Rule-43: “The” is used with specific date.
I was born on the April, 1992.
My father died on the 4th May, 2013.
Rule-44: “The” is also used before tenses such as, the present, the past, the future.
We have to know the history of the present, the past and the future.
Rule-45: “The” is used before names of noble families/appellation etc.
The Chowdhury’s, The Khan’s, The Ray’s, The Mughal’s, The Pathan’s, The Navwab’s etc.
Rule-46: “The” is used before names of famous/historical books.
The Iliad, the Odice, the Ramayana, the Mahabharat, the Skylark, the King Lear etc.
Rule-47: “The” is used with verbal nouns.
The reading of book is a good habit. The taking of morning-exercise is good for health.
Rule-48: “The” is used with comparative degrees when we make comparison between two things or persons.
Arif is the better of the two boys. This pen is the finer of the two. This house is the more horror of the two.
Rule-49: “The” is used when we indicate specific portion of something.
The yellow part of the egg is tasty.
The green portion of our National Flag indicates our ever green land.
Rule-50: “The” is used before names of political party.
The Awami League, The Bangladesh National party, The National Party, The Republican etc.
Rule-51: “The” is used with the following expressions: most of the/many of the/majority of the/minority of the/five of the/seven of the/one-third of the/two-fourth of the etc.
Most of the people in our country are illiterate.
One-third of the students were present in the meeting.
Rule-52: When two nouns or adjectives denote same person or thing in a sentence, then we use “The” before former noun or adjective.
Mr. Jewel is the headmaster and secretary in our school. (Same person)
Rule-53: When two nouns or adjectives denote different persons or things in a sentence, then we use “The” before both nouns/adjectives.
Mr. Jewel is the headmaster and the secretary in our school. (Different persons)
Rule-54: We use “The” before “Same”.
This is shirt is the same as mine. Anonna has the same pen as Nayon.
Rule-55: We use “The” before “Radio”.
Everyday Kane listens to the radio 89.4 fm. But, Kelly listens to the radio 87.2 fm.
Rule-56: We use “The” before school/college/university/church/pagoda/temple etc. when person is not directly related to these institutes.
Dane wen to the hospital. (Here, Dane is visitor, not patient)
Gege will to the prison. (Here, Gene is not a prisoner)
Humayun went to the school. (Here, Humayun is not a student, but anything)
Farid went the church to repair that. (Here, Farid is not a religious servicer)
Rule-57: “The” is used before names of museum/galleries.
The British Museum.
The National Museum.
The Tate Gallery.
Rule-58: “The” is used before names of cinemas/theatre.
The Palace Theatre.
The Odeon Cinema.
The Nazrul theatre.
Rule-59: “The” is used with the expression, the….of….
The House of parliament.
The bank of England.
The University of London.
The Gulf of Mexico.
The Museum of Modern Art.
The University of Bangladesh.
The Great Wall of China.
The Museum of New York.
The Tower of London.
The Bank of Buriganga.
Omission of Articles
Rule-1: Generally, articles are not used proper nouns.
Dhaka, Comilla, Sylhet, Nipa, Tania, Mamun, Alif, Hamza, Niloy etc.
Rule-2: Generally, articles are not used before abstract nouns.
Kindness, honesty, virtue, beauty, forgiveness, poverty, consciousness, freshman etc.
N: B: We can use Article “The” with the abstract nouns when they indicate these virtues specially.
Rule-3: Generally, articles are not used before material nouns.
Gold is a precious meatal like Diamond.
Bronze is also precious metal.
Rice is our staple food.
N: B: For specification we can use article “The”.
Rule-4: Generally, articles are not used before names of language.
Bengali, English, French, Japanese, Spanish etc.
Rule-5: Articles are not used before names of organs.
Raise your hand. Give your ear to me. Your eye says that word.
Rule-6: Articles are not used before names of dress:
I wore shirt on the occasion. Returning home, I put off my shirt and wore T-shirt.
Rule-7: Articles are not used before the following words: Nature, society, space etc.
We live in society because human beings are social.
We all love nature and natural beauty.
Rule-8: Articles are not used before pair noun.
Father and mother, brother and sister, husband and wife, bread and butter, milk and water etc.
Rule-9: Articles are not used before names of games or sports.
We went to Mirpur Stadium last Friday. We played football, but another team played cricket and badminton.
Rule-10: Articles are not used before foods.
I went to India on 13th January, 2015. There we enjoyed various Indian foods. We enjoyed our breakfast, lunch, dinner so much.
N: B: But, exception for the expression: Adjective + name of food…
We enjoyed an excellent breakfast or lunch.
Rule-11: Articles are not used before names of season:
Winter, summer, autumn, spring etc.
N: B: But, exception, the rainy season.
Rule-12: Articles are not used before names of countries.
Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Kuwait, France, Japan, Chili, Nepal, Lebanon etc.
N: B: But, exception USA, UK, UA etc.
Rule-13: Articles are not used before radio.
Nipa watched the event on television. Then, she informed me not to go outside.
Rule-14: Articles are not used before "King, queen, lord, maharaja etc.”
King, Lear had three daughters.
King Midas was a greedy man.
Queen Elizabeth was a beautiful woman.
Rule-15: Articles are not used before names of writer.
Homer’s Iliad is a famous book.
Nazrul’s Agnibina is a great inspiration for us.
N: B: We can use article before names of book, but not name of writer.
Rule-16: Generally, articles are not used with the following words: Sort of, kind of, type of, variety of, species of when they are used in the interrogative sentence.
There is a big library in our varsity.
What kind of book do you want to read?
What sort of book do you like?
What type of story does she like?
Rule-17: Articles are not used with the following expression: Preposition + object. ..
Rule-18: Articles are not used before “noun in apposition” in a sentence.
Mr. Shahid Ullah, headmaster of our school, is a good man. On the other hand, Mr. Asad, police of our Thana, is a bad one ever I have seen.
Rule-19: Articles are not used before “God or Allah|”.
May Allah help you.
Allah knows everything.
God will help you.
Rule-20: Articles are not used before “Home”.
I backed home at night.
My brother backed home at noon.
Rule-21: Articles are not used before names of day or month.
He will come to my house on Sunday morning.
Asad and Arif will come next week.
Rule-22: Articles are not used before names of lake.
Lake Baikal, Lake Superior, Lake Caspian etc.
Rule-23: Articles are not used before names of festival.
We will celebrate Bengali New Year with great joy.
We all celebrated Nipa’s Birthday Party on 15th February.
Rule-24: Articles are not used before the noun that is used as vocative case in a sentence.
Boys, listen to me what I say. Come on, dear friend. Stop here, Tania.
Rule-25: Articles are not used before complements of the transitive verb.
We made him captain.
People elected him chairman.
He became principal of our college.
Rule-26: Articles are not used before cardinal numbers.
I have sold 25 apples and 26 oranges.
My brother bought 10 pens and 5 note papers.
Rule-27: Generally, articles are not used before uncountable nouns.
Milk, water, rice, sugar, oil, information, news, furniture, tea, gold, advice, baggage, iron etc.
N: B: We can use article “The” before uncountable nouns for specification.
Rule-28: Articles are not used before school, college, university, mosque, church, pagoda, bed, temple, jail, market, hospital, prison etc when someone directly related to these nouns.
Kari is now in prison. (Because he is prisoner)
Akash is in hospital. (Because he is ill/patient)
My mother went to college. (Because she is visitor, not student.)
Rule-29: Articles are not used before names of avenue, park, street, buildings, square etc.
Nazrul Avenue, Manik Mia Avenue, Shishu Park, Faruf Street, College Street, market Street etc.
Rule-30: Articles are not used before "man and woman" when they denote human being in a sentence.
Man is mortal.
Man is born to be free.
Man and woman have equal right in society.
Rule-31: Articles are not used before speaker's own father, mother, sister, brother, cousin, nephew, aunt, uncle, child etc.
Mother is going to Dhaka very soon.
Baby is crying.
Cousin will come tomorrow.
Rule-32: Articles are not used before names of magazine (weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly etc.).
|Play boy magazine, Readers, Digest, and Newsweek etc.|
Rule-33: Articles are not used before names of lake, mountain, hill, island etc. when only and only one.
|Dhanmondi Lake, Mount Everest, Java, Sicily, Saint Martin, Mount Abu, Sandip, Cape of Good Hope etc.|