The noun : Case

Etymology: The word "Case" comes from the Latin word "Casus" means "State of affairs". That means relation between or among individuals/things.

Definition: A case is the relation of a noun, or a pronoun to other words in a sentence. that means, case refers to the relation of words in a sentence.

For Examples:-

I have a book.

He works in an office.

Mr. Shahid Ullah is a good teacher.

Here, have, works, is show the relation among other words in the sentences.

Types of case

Generally, there are three types of case

1. Nominative/subjective case

2. Objective case

3. Possessive case

1. Nominative case

Definition: When noun/pronoun acts as a subject of a verb in a sentence, then that noun/pronoun is known as nominative case of that sentence.

Nominative case

Sentence Nominative case Functions/uses

Tania needs a history book.

Mamun bought a nice shirt.

They are good player.

The poor are unhappy.

Reading a book is a good habit.

To walk is good for health.

The reading of book is a good habit.

Bread and butter is a rich food.

Tania

Mamun

They

The poor

Reading

To walk

The reading

Bread and butter

As a noun

As a noun

As a pronoun

As an adjective

As a gerund

As an infinitive

As a verbal noun

As a phrase

Types of nominative case

Again, nominative case: can be classified into four types. Such as :-

a. Case in apposition

b. Nominative absolute

c. Complementary nominative

d. Nominative of address/vocative case

a. Case in apposition

Definition: The word "Apposition" comes from verb "Apposite". The verb "Apposite" comes from The Latin word "Appositus" means "Neighbouring". That means put something near or close to. When two nouns stay close to each other and give new information about subject, then, second noun is called case in apposition of first noun.

Type of case in apposition Sentence Case in apposition
Nominative in apposition Mr. Shahid Ullah, headmaster of our school, was a good man Headmaster (Subject)
Objective in apposition I like Mr. Shahid Ullah, headmaster of our school. Headmaster (Object)
Possessive in apposition This is my cousin, Niha’s book. Niha’s (Possessive)

b. Nominative absolute

Definition: When nominative comes with present participle or perfect participle in a sentence without any relation to the finite verb of that sentence, then that nominative is known as nominative absolute.

Sentence Finite verb Nominative absolute
Jamal having gone, we could not meet him. Meet Jamal
This book being good,every student bought it. Bought This book

c. Complementary nominative

Definition: When noun acts as a complement of a sentence, then, that noun is called complementary nominative.

Sentence Complementary nominative
We selected him leader for our team. Leader
She was chosen chairman. Chairman.

d. Vocative case/nominative of address

Definition: When we say something addressing a noun in a sentence, then that noun in called nominative of address or vocative case.

Sentence Vocative case
The little asked, Mr. Joy, what are going to do? Mr. Joy
Joya, where are you going to this morning? Joya
Mamun, I have got your lecture. Mamun

2. Objective case

Definition: When noun act as an object of a verb or preposition in a sentence, then that noun is called objective case.

Type Sentence Objective case Functions
Direct object: Object indicates living being. I bought a shirt. Shirt I have a book. As noun
Indirect object: Object indicates lifeless things. I know him. Him I gave him the book. As pronoun.
Factitive object: It is an additional object when object of a transitive verb fails to express full meaning of a sentence. We made him captain. Captain I help the poor. As adjective
Cognate object: When intransitive verb takes its similar word as an objective to express its meaning, then that additional-similar word is called cognate object. I dreamt a good dream. Dream I love to write. As infinitive
Reflexive object: When reflexive pronoun acts as an object in a sentence, then it is called reflexive object. I hurt myself. Myself. I like traveling. As gerund
Retained object: Sometimes, in an active voice, we find two objects(especially, direct and indirect object); in this case, we take only one object for passive voice and the rest object remain unchanged which is known as retained objet. I teach her English. She is taught English by me. Here, English is retained object I don’t know where he lives in. As clause
Complementary object: When we take a noun after “To be” completing full sense of a sentence, then that noun is called complementary object. I know him to be a foo. Fool I know the girl in blue sari. As phrase
Adverbial object: When noun or word similar to noun acts as an object in a sentence, then that noun is called adverbial object. N.BL Adverbial object denotes time, place, manner, weight, distance, value, price etc. I gave him five taka. I played all day. Taka Day I like the writing of poem. As verbal noun

3. Possessive case

Definition: When noun or pronoun makes relation with other noun or pronoun in a sentence, then it is called possessive case

For examples:-

This is Nipa’s book.

That is niha’s dress.

Those are billal’s shirts.

Rules for forming possessive case

Rule-1: By using “Apostrophe + s ( ’s)’’ with sin lar noun (for organic/animal).

Singular noun ’s Sentence
Tania, Nipa, Billal, Alif, Hamza, Ali, Niloy, father, mother etc. Tania’s, Nipa’s, Billal’s, Alif’s, Hamza’s, Ali’s, Niloy’s, father’s, mother’s etc. This is Nipa’s blue sari. Tania’s father is a good doctor.

N.B: Don’t use “Apostrophe + s (’s)’’ with inorganic/lifeless thing.

Rule-2: By using “of” before organic of inorganic singular noun.

Singular noun Of Sentence
Mamun, chair, table, Kabir, Asad, book, pen etc. mother of Mamun , leg of chair, leg of table, book of Kabir, pen of Asad, cover page of book, ink of the pen etc. The leg of this table is short. She is mother of Mamun. This is the book of Kabir.

Rule-3: By using only “Apostrophe(’)’’ with organic plural noun ending with “s”.

Plural noun Apostrophe(’)” Sentence
boys, girls, cats, dogs, tigers etc. Boys’, girls’, cats’, dogs’, tigers’ etc. Boys’ school, cats' sleep, dogs' cage etc.

Rule-4: By using "Apostrophe + s ('s) with plural noun (for organic/animal) ending without “s”.

Plural noun ’s Sentence
men, women, mice, lice, children, kine, etc. men’s, women’s, mice’s, lice’s, children’s, kine's etc. This is women’s college. That is children’s park.

Rule-5: By using (’s) with compound noun.

Compound noun ’s Sentence
father-in-law, mother-in-law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law etc. father-in-law’s, mother-in-law’s, sister-in-law’s, brother-in-law’s etc. This is my father-in-law’s house. That was her mother-in-law’s house.

Rule-6: By using (’s) with one, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody, etc.

Pronoun (’s) Sentence
one, everyone, everybody, no one, nobody etc. One’s, everyone’s, everybody’s, no one’s, nobody’s etc. One should do one’s duty. Everybody should do everybody’s duty.

Rule-7: By using (’s) with noun ending with “ce/es

Noun ’s Sentence
Charles, apprentice, justice, police, Miles etc. Charles’s, apprentice’s, justice’s, police’s, Miles’s etc. This is Charles’s deed. We should rely on justice’s decision.

Rule-8: By using (’s) with case in apposition.

Case in apposition Case in apposition with (’s) (’s)
I want to talk to Mr. Shahid Ullah, headmaster of our school. Tusher, teacher of this school, is a good man. I want to talk to Mr. Shahid Ullah, headmaster’s friend of this school. This is Mr. Tusher, officer’s room. Headmaster’s Officer’s

Rule-9: When two or more nouns indicate any relation combine in a sentence, we use (’s) at end of the last noun for possessive case.

Nouns Sentence ('s)
Mamun and Kabir Tania and Nipa Jannat and Joya This is Mamun and Kabir’s house. This is Tania and Nipa’s room. That was Jannat and Joya’s office. Mamun and Kabir’s Tania and Nipa’s Jannat and Joya’s

Rule-10: When two or more nouns indicate any relation separately in a sentence, we use (’s) at end of the each noun for possessive case.

Nouns Sentence (’s)
Mamun and Kabir Tania and Nipa Jannat and Joya I knew Mamun’s and Kabir’s house. These are Tania’s and Nipa’s room. I went Jannat’s and Joya’s office. Mamun’s and Kabir’s Tania's and Nipa’s Jannat's and Joya’s

Rule-11: When we describe inorganic noun as an organic one, we (’s) for possessive case.

Nouns Sentence (’s)
moon, sun, fortune, death, flood, cyclone, wind etc. I like the sun’s shining. We enjoyed moon’s beauty. Sun’s moon’s

Rule-12: When we describe noun as an honorable one, we use (’s) for possessive case.

Nouns Sentence (’s)
god, country, king, queen, prince, president etc. This is God’s will to create us and destroy us. God’s

Rule-13: We use (’s) with nouns that express time, length, distance quantity/amount, weight etc.

Nouns Sentence (’s)
week, month, year, kilo, meter, yard etc. This is ten yard’s length. He is fifty kilo’s weight Yard’s kilo’s

Rule-14: We use 's with some phrases.

Nouns Sentence (’s)
Heart’s content, cat’s sleep, wit’s end, end’s all etc. Happiness consists in heart’s content. He always sleeps like cat’s sleep Heart’s content Cat’s sleep

Rule-15: We don’t use (’s) or "of" with the possessive case of personal pronoun.

Personal pronoun Possessive case Sentence Note

I

we

you

he

she

they

it

mine/my

our/ours

your/yours

his

hers

theirs

its

This is my book.

This is our school.

This is your pen.

This is his book.

This is her dress.

These are their jerseys.

I like it.

Yours sincere

Your faithfully

Faithfully yours

Sincerely yours




Rule-16: Sometimes, we can use double possessive case in a sentence.

Noun/pronoun (’s) Double possessive Sentence
Hasan, Kabir, mine, yours, theirs etc. Hasan's, Kabir's etc. book of mine, pen of Kabir’s, shirt of yours etc. This is book of mine. That is pen of Kabir’s. This is shirt of yours.

Rule-17: When we use “Adjective + noun=noun” we don’t use (’s).

Noun/pronoun Incorrect Sentence Correct Sentence

Copper toy

gold ring

street hawker

poor man

dirty cloth etc.

I bought a copper’s toy.

I bought a gold’s ring

I saw a street’s hawker.

He is a poor’s man.

This is a dirty’s cloth.

I bought a copper toy.

I bought a gold ring.

I saw a street hawker.

He is a poor man.

This is a dirt cloth.

Rule-18: Sometimes we use present participle as possessive case.

Present participle Present participle + noun Sentence

reading

washing

writing

landing

gossiping

debating

reading room

washing room

writing session

landing place

gossiping time

debating club

This is a nice reading room.

This is a washing room.

Now, it is writing session.

This is a landing place.

It is gossiping time.

This is a debating club.