The noun : Gender

Etymology: The word "Gender" comes from the Latin word "Genus" means "Race, family, sex, stock; also kind, rank, order".

Definition: Gender is the classification of things with regard to sex. In other word, gender is a word (noun/pronoun) that indicates masculinity, femininity, or both or not anyone of them, is called gender.

What in nature is called the difference of sex is in grammar called the difference of Gender. –J.C Nesfield.

Types of gender

a. Masculine Gender

b. Feminine Gender

c. Common Gender

d. Neuter Gender

a. Masculine Gender

Definition: Words (noun/pronoun) that indicate masculinity /manliness, is called Masculine Gender. .

For Example:-

Son, brother, father, brother-in-law, hero, gentle, boy, cock, bull, boar, king, monk, man etc.

b. Feminine Gender

Definition : Words (noun/pronoun) that indicate femininity/womanhood, is called Feminine Gender.

For Example :-

Daughter, sister, mother, sister-in-law, heroine, lady, girl, hen, cow, sow, queen, nun, woman etc.

c. Common Gender

Definition: Words (noun/pronoun) that indicate both femininity and manliness, is called Common Gender

For Examples:-

Baby, student, parent, teacher, tutor, infant, child, cousin, disciple, neighbor, doctor, orphan, monarch, monkey, people, public, servant, enemy, thief, army police etc

d. Neuter Gender

Definition: Words (noun/pronoun) that indicate lifeless or inorganic things (materials/substance), called Neuter Gender.

For Examples:-

Water, milk, book, chair, table, pen, pencil, paper, gold, silver, diamond, copper, iron, shirt, pant etc.

Rules for masculine to feminine.

Rule-1: By using different words within masculine words.

Masculine Feminine
Boy Girl
Brother Sister
Father Mother
Bachelor Maid/spinster
Bullock Heifer
Boar Sow
Uncle Aunt
Cock Hen
Dog Bitch
Drone Bee
Fox Vixen
Gander Goose
Horse Mare
Hart Roe
Colt Filly
Hero Heroine
Kind Queen
Lord Lady
Gentleman Lady/gentle lady
Man Woman
Male Female
Nephew Niece
Ram Ewe
Sir Madam/Madame
Stag Hind
Tailor Seamstress
Monk Nun
Widower Widow
Wizard Witch
Lad Lass

Rule-2: By changing the masculine word of a compound words.

Masculine Feminine
Bother-in-law Sister-in-law
Father-in-law Mother-in-law
Son-in-law Sister-in-law
Man-servant Maid-servant
He goat She goat
Jack-ass She-ass
Male-servant Female-servant
Bull-calf Cow-calf
Cock-sparrow Hen-sparrow
Billy-goat Nanny-goat
Male-child Female-child
Fisherman Fisherwoman
God-father God-mother
Gentleman Gentlewomen
Step-brother Step-sister
Grand-mother Grand-mother
Land-lord Land-lady
School-master School-mistress
Washer-man Washer-woman
Milkman Milkmaid
Pea-cock Pea-hen

Rule-3: By adding “ess” at the end of the masculine words.

Masculine Feminine
Author Authoress
Priest Priestess
Shepherd Shepherdess
Baron Baroness
Count Countess
Manager Manageress
Poet Poetess
Tutor Tutoress
Steward Stewardess
Lion Lioness
Prince Princess
Peer Peeress
Patron Patroness
Giant Giantess
Waiter Waitress
Marquees/marquis Marchioness
Sorcerer Sorceress
Duke Duchess
Emperor Empress
Master Mistress
Mr. Mrs.
Doctor Doctress
Murder Murderess
Host Hostess
Heir Heiress
Jew Jewess
God Goddess

Rule-4: By changing vowels of masculine words and adding “ess”.

Masculine Feminine
Conductor Conductress
Director Directress
Inspector Inspectress
Governor Governess
Songster Songstress
Tiger Tigress
Instructor Instructress
Traitor Traitress
Porter Portress
Actor Actress
Benefactor Benefactress
Enchanter Enchantress
Hunter Huntress

Rule-5: By using only “S” at end of the masculine words.

Masculine Feminine
Book Books
Student Students
Cow Cows
Girl Girls
Dog Dogs
Boy Boys
Glass Glasses
Box Boxes
Branch Branches
Bus Buses
Gas Gases
Ass Asses

Rule-6: By adding “a/ix/ine” with some foreign masculine words.

Masculine Feminine
Sultan Sultana
John Johna
Prosecutor Prosecutrix
Singer Signora
Czar Czarina
Hero Heroine
Administrator Administratrix
Executor Executrix

Rule-7: the following words are always considered as Masculine Gender.

Sun, summer, winter, noon, death, fear, war, time, thunder, anger, love, aggressiveness etc.

Rule-8: The following words are always considered as feminine.

Earth, spring, fall, beauty, charity, affection, moon, softness, hope, modesty, nature, justice, mercy, sympathy, kindness, virtue, peace, religious, river and name of train, ship, country etc.

Rule-9: The following feminine genders have no Masculine form.

Homemaker, virgin, Amazon, brunette, nurse, shrew, concubine etc.

Rule-10: The following words are always Common Gender.

Writer, teacher, tutor, doctor, parent, spouse, orphan, chairman, citizen, cousin, neighbor, leader, lawyer, friend, baby, child, fool, infant, enemy, monarch, deer, ass, advocate, author, bird, artist, person, singer, ruler, secretary, relation, pig, student, pupil, disciple, voter, lover, sheep, servant, foul, elephant, beggar, cat, clerk, judge, typist, president, prime minister.

Rule-11: Material nouns and other inorganic are considered as Neuter Gender.

Water, milk, gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum, lead, bronze, mercury, oil, sand, soil, rice, sugar, honey, lentil, salt, money, petrol, diesel, octane, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen., book, pen, pencil, paper, table, chair, sofa, suitcase, luggage, baggage, rubbish etc.