Transformation of sentences

Definition: Transformation means “to change something from one form to another”. In grammatical viewpoint, it means to change one type of sentence into another type.

This change can be divided into two classes.

Conversation of sentence

Transformation of sentence

Difference between conversation of sentence and transformation of sentence.

Conversation of sentence Transformation of sentence
When we change both the structure and meaning of the sentence, then this change is known as conversation of sentence. When we change only structure and meaning of the sentence remains steady, then this changes is known as transformation of sentence.
Sentence structure will be changed. Sentence structure will be changed.
Meaning will be changed. Meaning will remain unchanged.

Examples:-

He did this work. (affirmative)

He did not do this work.(negative)

Did he do this work?(interrogative)

Examples:-

Didn’t he do this work?(that means, he did he do this work. Hence meaning remains unchanged.)

Requirements

Knowledge about the classification of sentence.

Knowledge about tense.

Knowledge about degree of comparison.

Enhanced vocabulary (synonyms and antonyms).

Right form of verb.

Logical reasoning.

Affirmative to Negative

Rule-1: We can change affirmative sentence into negative one by using “not + opposite words(antonym)”.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Mr. Hasan forgot me. Mr. Hasan did not remember me.
I will remember your name. I won’t forgot your name.

Rule-2: If affirmative sentence contains “Always”, then convert into “Never”.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
They always play football in the afternoon. They never avoid football in the afternoon.
He is always punctual. He is never late.
I am always with them. I am neve against them.
Nipa always loves me. Nipa never hates me.

Rule-3: If “Someone” in the affirmative sentence, them use “Not always”.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
They sometimes came here. They did not always come here.
Azad sometimes call me. Azad does not always call me.
Nipa sometimes goes there. Nipa does not always go there.

Rule-4: For, “Only/alone” use the following rules.

When “Only/alone” qualifies any person, then put “None but” at the beginning of the negative sentence.

When “Only/alone” qualifies thing/material/substance, then use “Nothing but” in the negative sentence (at same place as it was in the affirmative sentence).

Use “Note more that/not less than” for age/number.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Only Allah can helps us. None but Allah can help us.
He came alone to my birthday party. None but he came to my birthday party.
Jannat is only at three. Jannat is not more than/not less than three.
Nipa has only a few story books. Nipa has nothing but a few story books.

Rule-5: For “Have to/has to/must” use “Cannot but/cannot help” and for “Had to” use “could not but”.

Structure-1: Subject + cannot but/could not but + verb1 + other words.

Structure-2: Subject + cannot help/could not help + verb + ing-form + other words.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
I had to go there to see my mother. I could not but go there to see my mother.
They have to do this work. They cannot help doing this work.
He has to work hard for his family. He cannot but work hard for his family.
We must obey our parents. We cannot help obeying our parents.

Rule-6: For “Many” use “Not a few” in the negative sentence.

For “A few” use “Not many” in the negative sentence.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
He has many friends. He has not a few friends.
She has a few friends. She has not many friends.
They ate many apples. The did not eat a few apples.
She saw many people in the street. She did see a few people in the street.

Rule-7: For “Much” use “Not a little” in the negative sentence.

For “A little” use “Not much” in the negative sentence.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
The little baby drunk much milk. The little baba did not drink a little milk.
They spent much money for the tour. The did not spent a little money for the tour.
She drinks a litter water. She does not drink much water.
Azad has a little hope for his success. Azad has not much hope for his success.

Rule-8: If affirmative sentence contains “A/all/every” at the beginning of the sentence, then use following rules.

There is no + other words (adjective/noun) + but + verb + other words. Or

There is no + other words (adjective/noun) + who + does not + verb1 + other words.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Every mother lover her child. There is no mother but loves her child.
Every man love his/her country. There is no man who does not love his/her country.
A traitor betrays with all. There is no traitor who does not betray with all.

Rule-9: For “Everybody” use “Nobody” in the negative. Then follow the rules.

There is nobody + other words (adjective/noun) + but + verb + other words.

There is nobody + other words (adjective/noun) + who + does not + verb1 + other words.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Everybody love his/her country. There is nobody but love his/her country.
Everybody hates a liar. There is nobody who does not hate a liar.
Everybody lovers his/her mother. There is nobody but loves his/her mother.

Rule-10: We can also use the following rule for “A/all/every” in the negative sentence.

No + other words(verb/adjective) + opposite word of verb/adjective + other words (if have).

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Everybody hates a liar. Nobody loves a liar.
Every mother loves her child. No mother hates her child.
A traitor betrays with all. No traitor keeps his word with all.

Rule-11: When affirmative sentence contains “Too…to” structure, then use the following rule.

Subject + verb + so + adjective/adverb + that + subject + cannot/could not + verb1 + other words (if have).

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
He is too weak to work. He is weak that he cannot work.
They are too stupid to do this work. They are so stupid that they cannot do this work.
She was too tired to speak. She was so tired she could not speak.

Rule-12: Affirmative sentence with “As soon as”.

Follow the structure to change it to negative.

No sooner + had + subject + verb3 + others words + than + independent clause.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
As soon as he left the station, Nipa reached there. No sooner had he left the station than Nipa reached there.
As soon as they started to play, it started raining. No sooner had they started to play than it started raining.

Rule-13: Affirmative sentence with “As….as”.

Follow the rule to change it to negative sentence.

Subject + verb + not less + adjective/adverb + than + other words.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
He is as smart as his brother. He is not less smart than his brother.
She is as beautiful as her sister. She is not less beautiful than her sister.
They are as cunning as the fox. They are not less cunning than the fox.

Rule-14: Assertive sentence with adverb of manners.

Follow the rule to change it to negative sentence.

Subject + not + verb + other words + opposite word of adverb of manner.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
She behaved with Jamal rudely. She did not behave with Jamal philately.
They played football fairly. They did not play football unfairly.
The tortoise runs slowly. The tortoise does not run quickly.

Rule-15: Assertive sentence with universal truth and habitual fact.

Follow the rule to change it to negative sentence.

Helping verb + not + subject + other words + question mark (?).

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Knowledge is power. Isn’t knowledge power.
Health is wealth. Isn’t health wealth.
The earth moves round the sun. Doesn’t the earth move round the sun.

Rule-16: Assertive sentence with “Both…and”.

Follow the rule to change it to negative sentence.

Not only + noun/pronoun + but also + noun/pronoun + other words.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Both Tania and Nipa came here yesterday. Not only Tania but also Nipa came here yesterday.
Both Asad and Azad played football. Not only Asad also Azad played football.
Both Susan and Shishir did this work. Not only Susan but also Shishir did this work.

Rule-17: Assertive sentence with “The + superlative degree”.

Follow the rule to change it to negative sentence.

No other + noun (placed just after superlative degree) + other words + verb + as + adjective/adverb + as + subject.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence
Joy is the most intelligent boy in the class. No other boy in the class is as intelligent as Joy.
Asad is the strongest boy in the village. No other boy in the village is as strong as Asad.
She is the most beautiful girl in the village. No other girl in the village is as beautiful village.

Rule-18: Some exceptional sentence which don’t follow specific rule.

Affirmative Sentence Negative Sentence

Man is mortal.

Man is not immortal.

Or, Isn’t man mortal?

They were worried if I would come here.

They were not free form tension if I would come here.

Or, They weren’t unworried.

All men must die. man can escape from death.
He is busy with his work. He is not at rest.
He ensured me that he would come. He did not frustrated me that he would come.

N.B: We can use all the rules mentioned above for negative to affirmative just inversing them.

Assertive to Interrogative Sentence

Rule-1: For affirmative-assertive, we use negative-interrogative sentence.

Helping verb + not + subject + other words + question mark(?).

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
He is a student. Isn’t he a student?
They play well. Don’t they play well?
She was a good singer. Wasn’t she a good singer?

Rule-2: For negative-assertive, we use affirmative-interrogative sentence structure.

Helping verb + subject + other words + question mark(?).

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
He is not a student. Is he a student.
She did not go there. Did she got there.
They can’t do this work. Can they do this work.
Joy won’t join the class party. Will joy join the class party.

Rule-3: For “All/everybody/everyone” we use the following rule.

Who + helping verb + not + other words + question mark(?).

Assertive Sentence Negative Sentence
Everybody loves him. Who doesn’t love him.
All know the fact. Who don’t know fact?
Everyone’s is presenting in the meeting. Who isn’t present in the meeting.

Rule-4: For “All/every + noun” we use the following rule.

Is there any + noun + who + helping verb + not + main verb + other words + question mark(?).

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
Every mother love her child. Is there any mother who does not love her child?
All men must die. Is there any man who must not die?
Every man knows the matter. Is there any man who does not know the matter?
Every Kamal will come here. Is there any Kamal who will not come here?

Rule-5: For “None/nobody/no one” we use the following rule.

Who + other words + question mark (?).

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
Nobody believes him. Who believes him?
No one can to this work. Who can do this work?
None can do this. Who can do this?
No one will come to the party. Who will come to the party?

Rule-6: Using opposite word, we can change assertive sentence into interrogative one.

No Any Nothing Anything
No one/none Anyone Nowhere Anywhere
Nobody Anybody Never Ever
Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
Nobody believes him. Does anybody believe him?
No one can do this work. Can anyone do this work?
None can do this. Can anyone do this?
No one will come to the party. Will any one come to the party?

Rule-7: Assertive sentence with introductory “There/it”.

What/who + verb + other words + question mark(?).

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
There is no time to spend with you. What is the time to spend with you?
There is no hope for me. What is the hope for me?
There is no usefulness of this medicine. What is the usefulness of this medicine?
There is none hones like him. Who is honest like him?

Rule-8: When “Nothing” act as an object in the assertive sentence, then we use “Anything”. But, when it acts as a subject, then we use “What”.

Helping verb + subject + main verb + other words + question mark(?).

What + helping verb + main verb + other words + question mark(?).

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
There was nothing in the room. Was there anything in the room?
I know nothing about this issue. Do I know anything about this issue?
She told me nothing to me. Did she tell anything to me?
Nothing is impossible for man. What is impossible for man?
Nothing can block this water flow. What can block this water flow?
Nothing will happen in this situation. What will happen in this situation?

Rule-9: Assertive sentence with “Nothing but”.

What + helping verb + other words + but + other words (words placed after but) + question mark(?).

Assertive Sentence Interrogative Sentence
Our life is nothing but a sum total of moments. What is our life but a sum total moments?
He is nothing but a good man. What is he but a good man?
They are nothing but good players. What ate they good players?
She is nothing but a fairy. What is she but a fairy?

N.B: We can use all the rules mentioned above for interrogative to assertive jus inversing them.

Assertive to Exclamatory

Rule-1: General rule.

What/how + a/an (only with what) + adjective/adverb + noun + subject + verb + note of exclamation(!).

Assertive Sentence Exclamatory Sentence
He is a good boy. What a good boy he is!
She is a beautiful girl. What a beautiful girl she is!
The scenery is very charming. How charming the scenery is!

N.B: Avoid very, great in the exclamatory sentence.

Rule-2: Assertive with “Wish” (subject + wish + subject + were/had/could + other words).

If/were/would that/had + subject + were/had/could + other words + note of exclamation (!).

Assertive Sentence Exclamatory Sentence
I wish I were a king.

If I were a king!

Would that I were a king!

Were I a king!

I wish I were a bird.

Were I a bird!

If I were a bird!

Would that I were a bird!

Rule-3: Assertive sentence with “Wish to/desire to”.

If + subject + could + verb + other words + note of exclamation(!).

Assertive Sentence Exclamatory Sentence
She wishes to sing a song. If she could sing a song!
They wish to play football. If they could play football!
He desire to make a nice journey. If he could make a nice journey!
He wish to visit to my village. If I could visit to my village!
I desire to take a rest. If I could take a rest!

Rule-4: Assertive sentence with “Positive feeling (joy/merriment/delight/surprise/joyous etc.)”.

Hurrah/bravo/ + note of exclamation (!) + subject + rest of the sentence + full stop.

Assertive Sentence Exclamatory Sentence
It is a matter of joy that we have won the match. Hurrah! We have won the match.
It is a matter of merriment that he has got GPA-5.00. Hurrah! He has got GPA-5.00.
I have dreamt a good dream last night. Bravo! I have dreamt a good dream last night.

Rule-5: Assertive sentence with “Negative feelings (sorrow/sad/grief/regret/depressing/trouble etc.)”.

Alas + note of exclamation (!) + subject + rest of the sentence + full stop.

Assertive Sentence Exclamatory Sentence
It is a matter of sorrow that he is died. Alas! He is died.
It is a matter of regret she has lost the game. Alas! She has lost the game.
He has gone to astray. Alas! He has gone to astray.

Exclamatory to Assertive

Rule-1: Exclamatory sentence with “What/how”.

Subject + verb + very/great/peculiar/extremely/surprisingly etc + adjective + other words + full stop.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
How beautiful the girl is! The girl is very beautiful.
What a nice bird it is! It is a very nice bird.
How big a river the Meghna is! The Meghna is a very big river.
How charming the scenery is! The scenery is very charming.

Rule-2: Exclamatory sentence with “were/had/could”.

Subject + wish + subject + were/had/could + other words + full stop.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
Were I a king! I wish I were a king.
Had I got an Aladdin’s lamp! I wish I had got a Aladdin’s lamp.
Could sing a song in the class! I wish I could sin a son in the class.

Rule-3: Exclamatory sentence with “If/would that”.

Subject + wish + subject + were/had/could + other words + full stop.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
If I were a king! I wish I were a king.
Would that I could fly in the sky! I wish I could fly in the sky.
If I had been a great scientist! I wish I had been a great scientist.

Rule-4: Exclamatory sentence with “Hurrah/bravo”.

It is a matter of joy/rejoice/delight/merriment/surprise etc. + that + independent clause.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
Hurrah! We have won the match. It is a matter of joy that we have won the match.
Hurrah! He has got GPA-5.OO. It is a matter of merriment that he has got GPA-5.00.
Bravo! I have dreamt a good dream last night. I have dreamt a good dream last night.

Rule-5: Exclamatory sentence with “Alas”.

It is a matter of sorrow/sad/regret/depressing/trouble etc. + that + independent clause.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
Alas! He is died. It is a matter of sorrow that he is died.
Alas! She has lost the game. It is a matter of regret that she has lost the game.
Alas! He has gone to astray. He has one to astray.

Rule-6: Exclamatory sentence with “If only”.

Subject + I + to + main verb + rest of the sentence + full stop.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
If only I could go aboard once! I wish to go aboard once.
If only I could come back once to her! I wish to come back once to her.
If only I could meet my friend! I wish to meet my friend.

Rule-7: Exclamatory sentence with “Good morning/noon/afternoon”.

Subject + wish + good morning/noon/afternoon + to + indirect object + full stop.

Subject + wish + indirect object + good morning/noon/afternoon + full stop.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
Good morning! Mr. Shahid Ullah.

I wish good morning to Mr. Shahid Ullah.

Or, I wish Mr. Shahid Ullah good morning.

Good afternoon! Nipa.

I wish good afternoon to Nipa.

Or, I wish Nipa a good afternoon.

Good afternoon ! Grandfather.

I wish good afternoon to grandfather.

Or, I wish grandfather good afternoon.

Rule-8: Exclamatory sentence with “Good bye/night”.

Subject + bid + good morning/noon/afternoon + to + indirect object + full stop.

Subject + bid + indirect object + good morning/noon/afternoon + full stop.

Exclamatory Sentence Assertive Sentence
Good bye! Mr. Shahid Ullah.

I wish good bye to Mr. Shahid Ullah.

Or,I wish Mr. Shahid Ullah goodbye.

Good night! Nipa.

I wish good night to Nipa.

Or,I wish Ni a good night.

Good bye! Grandfather.

I wish good bye to grandfather.

Or, I wish grandfather goodbye.

Transformation of sentence with simple, compound and complex sentence

Rule-1: Sentence (with same subject) denotes time.

Simple sentence

Verb + ing + other words + comma + principle clause.

Going to school, she did her homework.

Looking at the blackboard, he though many things about madam.

Making a plan, they played well.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb (corresponding to the tense of principle

She went to school and did her homework.

He looked at the blackboard and though many things about madam.

They made a plan and played well.

Complex sentence

When + subject + verb (corresponding to the tense or principle clause) + other words + principle clause.

When she went to school, she did her homework.

Shen he looked at the blackboard, he thought many things about madam.

When they made a plan, they played very well.

Rule-2: Sentence (with same subject) denotes reason/cause-effect relationship.

Simple sentence

Verb + ing + other words + comma + principle clause.

Seeing a lion, the man ran swiftly.

Doing a mistake, he suffered lots.

Working hard, he prospered in life.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb (corresponding to the tense of principle clause) + other words + and + principle clause.

The man saw a lion and ran swiftly.

He did a mistake and suffered lots.

He worked hard and prospered in life.

Complex sentence

Since/as + subject + verb (corresponding to the tense of principle clause) + other words + principle clause.

Since the man saw a lion, he ran swiftly.

As he did a mistake, he suffered lots.

Since he worked hard, he prospered in life.

Rule-3: Sentence (with different subject) denotes time/reason/cause-effect relationship.

Simple sentence

Subject + being (for am/is/are/was/were)/having(have/has/had) + other words + comma + principle clause.

Being nervous, she made a bad result in the examination.

The water being salty, he could not drink it.

He having gone to home, everybody welcomed him.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb (am/is/are/was/were/have/has/had) + other words + and/and so/so + principle clause.

She was nervous and so she made a bad result in the examination.

The water was salty and so he could not drink it.

He had gone to home and everybody welcomed him.

Complex sentence

When/since/as + subject + verb (am/is/are/was/were/have/has/had) + other words + comma + principle clause.

Since he was nervous, she made a bad result in the examination.

As the water was salty, he could not drink it.

When he had gone to home, everybody welcomed him.

Rule-4: Sentence (with same subject) denotes reason/cause-effect relationship.

Simple sentence

Because of/on account of/ owing to/due to/for + possible case of subject + being verb (for am/is/are/was/were) having (have/has/had) + other words + comma + principle clause.

Because of his being ill, he was absent in the class.

On account of his poverty, he could not study.

Due to/owing to late, he was punished.

For his honesty, he was rewarded.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb (am/is/are/was/were/have/has/had) + other words + and/and so/so + principle clause.

He was ill and so he was absent in the class.

He was poor and so he could not study.

He was late and he was punished.

He was honest and so he was rewarded.

Complex sentence

Since/as + subject + verb (am/is/are/was/were/have/has/had) + other words + comma + principle clause.

Since he was ill, he was absent in the class.

Since he was poor, he could not study.

As he was late, he was punished.

As he was hones, he was rewarded.

Rule-5: Sentence (with same subject) denotes reason/cause-effect relationship.

Simple sentence

Because of/on account of/for + possessive case of subject + noun form of the mentioned adjective + other words + comma + principle clause.

Because of his illness, he was absent in the class.

On account of his poverty, he could not study.

For his lateness, he was punished.

For his honesty, he was rewarded.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb (am/is/are/was/were/have/has/had) + adjective + others words + and/and so/so + principal clause.

He was ill and so he was absent in the class.

He was poor and so he could not study.

He was late and he was punished.

He was honest and so he was rewarded.

Complex sentence

Since/as + subject + verb (am/is/are/was/were/have/has/had) + adjective + other words + comma + principal clause.

Since he was ill, he was absent in the class.

Since he was poor, he could not study.

As he was late, he was punished.

As he honest, he was rewarded.

Rule-6: Sentence that emphasize meaning of the sentence.

Simple sentence

Subject + verb + too + adjective + to + base form of verb.

She was too poor to buy a book.

They were too fatty to play kabaddi.

The old man is too weak to walk.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb + very + adjective + and so/so + subject + cannot/could not + base form of verb + other words.

She was very poor and so she could not buy a book.

They were very fatty and so they could not play kabaddi.

The old man is very weak so he cannot walk.

Complex sentence

Subject + verb + so + adjective + that + subject + cannot/could not + base form of verb + other words.

She was so poor that could not buy a book.

They were so fatty that they could not play kabaddi.

The old man is so weak that he cannot walk.

Rule-7: Sentence that express purpose.

Simple sentence

Subject + verb + other words (if have) + to/in order to + base form of verb + other words.

He went to market to buy a hilsha fish.

They came to me to borrow some money.

She went there to meet her boyfriend.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb + other words + and + subject + verb/only verb (corresponding to tense of the principal clause) + other words.

He went to market and bough a hilsha fish.

They came to me and borrowed some money.

She went there and met her boyfriend.

Complex sentence

Subject + verb + other words + so that + subject + can/could/may/might + base form of verb + other words.

He went to market so that he could buy a hilsha fish.

They came to me so that they could borrow some money.

She went there so that she could meet her boyfriend.

Rule-8: Sentence that express purpose.

Simple sentence

Subject + verb + other words (if have) + to/in order to + base form of verb + other words.

He went to market to buy a hilsha fish.

The came to me to borrow some money.

She went there to meet her boyfriend.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb + other words + and + subject + want to/wanted to (corresponding to tense of the principal clause) + other words.

He went to market and he wanted to buy a hilsha fish.

They came to me and they wanted to borrow some money.

She went there and she wanted to meet her boyfriend.

Complex sentence

Subject + verb + other words + so that + subject + can/could/may/might + base form of verb + other words.

He went to market so that he could buy a hilsha fish.

The came to me so that they could borrow some money.

She went there so that she could meet her boyfriend.

Rule-9: Sentence that express purpose.

Simple sentence

Imperative sentence + to/in order to + base form of verb + other words.

Go to market to buy a hilsha fish.

Come to me in order to solve this problem.

Go there to meet your boyfriend.

Work hard in order to be success.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb + other words + and + subject + will + base form or verb + other words.

Go to market and you will buy a hilsha fish.

Come to me and you will get some money.

To there and you will meet your boyfriend.

Work hard and you will be success.

Complex sentence

Subject + verb + other words + so that + subject + can/may + base form of verb + other words.

You go to market so that you can buy a hilsha fish.

You come to me so that you can borrow some money.

You got there so that you can meet your boyfriend.

You can work hard so that you can be success.

Rule-10: Sentence that connect opposite two sense/meanings.

Simple sentence

Despite/in spite of + possessive form of the subject + being (for am/is/are/was/were)/having(have/has/had) + adjective + other words (if have) + comma + principle clause.

In spite of his being poor, he was unhappy.

Despite his having lots of money, he is unhappy.

In spite of her being beautiful, she is gentle and modest.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause)/am/is/are/was/were (for being) have/has/had (for having) + adjective + but + principal clause.

He was poor, but he was happy.

He has lots of money, but he is unhappy.

She is beautiful, but she is gentle and modest/but gentle and modest.

Complex sentence

Though/although/even though/even if + subject + verb (corresponding to the tense of the principle clause) + other words + comma + principal clause.

Though he was poor, he was happy.

Although he has lots of money, he is unhappy.

Even though she is beautiful, she is gentle and modest.

Rule-11: Sentence that connects opposite two sense/meanings.

Simple sentence

Despite/in spite of + possessive form of the subject + noun form of adjective + other words (if have) + comma + principal clause.

In spite of his poverty, he was happy.

Despite of his lots of money, he is unhappy.

In spite of her beauty, she is gentle and modest.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause)/am/is/are/was/were (for being) have/has/had (for having) + adjective + but + principal clause.

He was poor, but he was happy.

He has lots of money, but he is unhappy.

She is beautiful, but she is gentle and modest.

Complex sentence

Principal clause + although/though/even though/even if + subject + verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause) + other words.

He was happy though he was poor.

He is unhappy although he has lots of money.

She is gentle and modest even though she is beautiful.

Rule-12: Sentence that expresses condition.

Simple sentence

Without + verb ing-form + other words + comma + principal clause.

Without working hard, you cannot prosper in life.

Without good use of time, you cannot succeed in life.

Without making a well plan, you cannot go ahead properly.

Compound sentence

Imperative sentence (base form or verb) + other words + comma + otherwise + principal clause.

Work hard, otherwise you cannot prosper in life.

Make a good use of time, otherwise you cannot succeed in life.

Make a well plan, otherwise you cannot go ahead properly.

Complex sentence

If + you + do not + verb + other words + comma + principal clause.

Unless + subject + verb (positive) + other word + comma + principal clause.

If you do not work hard, you cannot prosper in life.

If you do not make a good use of time, you cannot succeed in life.

Unless you make a well plan, you cannot go ahead properly.

Rule-13: Sentence that express condition.

Simple sentence

By + verb ing-form + other words + comma + principal clause.

By doing this job, you can remove your poverty.

By saying this, you can manage some money from the boss.

By playing football, you can earn lots of money.

Compound sentence

Imperative sentence (base form of verb) + other words + and + principal clause.

Do this job and you can remove your poverty.

Say this and you can manage some money from the boss.

Play football and you can earn lots of money.

Complex sentence

If + you + verb (positive) + other words + comma + principal clause.

If you do this job, you can remove your poverty.

If you say this, you can manage some money from the boss.

If you play football, you can earn lots of money.

Rule-14: Sentence with present participle.

Simple sentence

Subject + verb + object (direct and indirect) + present participle + other words.

I saw a man walking on the river.

He saw a nice kite flying in the sky.

He saw them doing this work.

I saw her reading a story book.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb + object + and + subject + verb + other words.

N.B: Use subjunctive form of the indirect object.

I saw a man and he was walking on the river.

He saw a nice kite and it was flying in the sky.

He saw them and they were doing this work.

I saw her and she was reading a story book.

Complex sentence

Subject + verb + object + who/which/that + verb + other words.

Subject + verb + object + when + subject + verb + other words.

N.B: Use subjunctive form of the indirect object.

I saw a man who was walking on the river.

He saw a nice kite that/which was flying in the sky.

He saw who (that + they) were doing this work.

I saw who (that she) was reading a story book.

I saw her when she was reading a story book.

Rule-15: Sentence with “subject + verb + adjective + noun”.

Simple sentence

Subject + verb + a/an + adjective + noun.

I saw a blind man.

They played a good play.

She bought a nice dress.

Azad dreamt a nice dream.

Nipa visited a beautiful place.

Tania went to an expert dentist.

Mamun sold a luxurious house.

Compound sentence

Subject + verb + noun + and + subject (generally pronoun form) + verb + adjective.

I saw a man and he was blind.

They played a play and it/that was good.

She bought a dress and it/that was nice.

Azad dreamt a dream and it/that was beautiful.

Tania went to a dentist and he was an expert.

Mamun sold a house and it/that was luxurious.

Complex sentence

Subject + verb + noun + who/that/which + verb + adjective.

I saw a man who was blind.

They played a play that was good.

She bought a dress that was nice.

Azad dreamt a dream that was nice.

Nipa visited a place that was beautiful.

Tania went to a dentist who was an expert.

Mamun sold a house that was luxurious.

Rule-16: Sentence that express “Continuous time”.

Simple sentence

At the time of/in the moment of + possessive form of subject + verb ing-form + other words + comma + principal clause.

At the time of her reading, a boy disturbed her.

In the moment of his writing , it was raining.

At the time of their playing, on old lady came for some money.

Compound sentence

Subject + to be verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause) + verb ing-form + other words + and + principal clause.

She was reading and a boy was disturbed her.

He was writing and it was raining.

They were playing and an old lady came for some money.

Complex sentence

When + subject + to be verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause) + verb ing-form + other words + comma + principal clause.

When she was reading, a boy was disturbed her.

When he was writing, it was raining.

When they were playing, and old came for some money.

Rule-17: Sentence that express “Continuous time”.

Simple sentence

At the time of/in the moment of + verb intg-form + comma + principal clause.

At the time of raining, he was reading.

It the moment of snowing, he went out for walking.

At the time of winding, a man stands outside the room.

Compound sentence

It + to be verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause) + verb ing-form + other words + and + principal clause.

It was raining and he was reading.

It was snowing and he went out for walking.

It is winding and a man stands outside the room.

Complex sentence

When + it + to be verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause) + verb ing-form + other words + and + principal clause.

When it was raining, he was reading.

When it was snowing, he went out for walking.

When it is winding, a man stands outside the room.

Rule-18: Sentence that express “Specific” moment, day, month, season, year, decade”.

Simple sentence

At (for moment/day/short time period) + other words without subject and verb + comma + principal clause.

In (for month/season/year/decade/long time period) + other words without subject and verb + principal clause.

At morning, I was sleeping.

In summer, he was in New York.

In 1992, I was born.

At night, a fox is barking loudly.

At day light, she was sleeping.

In 1970, we were under Pakistan.

Compound sentence

It + verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause) + other words + and + principal clause.

It was morning and I was sleeping.

It was summer and he was in New York.

It was 1992 and I was born.

It is night and a fox is barking loudly.

It was day light and she was sleeping.

It was 1970 and we were under Pakistan.

Complex sentence

When + it + verb (corresponding to the tense of the principal clause) + other words + principal clause.

When it was morning, I was sleeping.

When it was summer, he was in New York.

When it was 1992, I was born.

When it is night, a fox is barking loudly.

When it was day light. She was sleeping.

When it was 1970, we were under Pakistan.

Note: The rules mentioned above can be used like the following manners just investing them.

Such as,

1. Simple to compound and compound to simple.

2. Simple to complex and complex to simple.

3. Compound to complex and complex to compound.

More rules for changing sentence

Rule-1: Relative pronoun and noun in apposition.

Complex sentence

Subject + who + verb (am/is/are etc.) + status/post/rank/position + verb (am/is/are etc.) + other words.

Mr. Shahid Ullah who was a headmaster of our school was a good man.

Joya who is a principal of our college is hone.

Omar who was the caliph of Islam was a mighty ruler.

Simple sentence

Subject + comma + noun in apposition (position/status/rank/post) + comma + verb (am/is/are etc.) + other words.

Mr. Shahid Ulla, headmaster of our school, was a good man.

Joya, principal of our college, is honest.

Omar, caliph of Islam, was a mighty ruler.

Rule-2: Relative pronoun and preposition.

Complex sentence

Subject + who/whom/which/that + main verb + other words + verb (am/is/are etc.) + other words.

The girl who wore blue sari was my classmate.

The pond which filled with trash is our left land.

The girl who carries black vanity bag is beautiful.

Simple sentence

Subject + other words (without main verb) + verb (am/is/are etc.) + other words.

The girl in blue sari was my classmate.

The pond with trash is our left land.

The girl with black vanity bag is beautiful.

Transformation of sentence with degree.

Rule-1: As….as/than

Positive degree

Noun1 + (subject) + verb + (am/is/are etc.) + as + adjective/adverb + as + noun-2.

He is as good his brother.

Meem is as beautiful as her sister.

Ali is as intelligent as Mosharrof.

Comparative degree

Noun2 + verb + not + comparative form of adjective/adverb + than + noun1.

His brother is not better than he.

Her sister is not more beautiful than Meem.

Mosharrof is not more intelligent than Ali.

Superlative degree.

There is no superlative form of this type of positive or comparative form.

Rule-2: Not….as/than

Positive degree

Noun1 (subject) + verb (am/is/are etc.) + not + so/as + adjective/adverb + as + noun2.

He is not so good as his brother.

Meem is not as beautiful as her sister.

Ali is not so intelligent as Mosharrof.

Comparative degree

Noun1 + verb + less + positive form of adjective/adverb + than + noun2.

He is less good than his brother.

Meem is less beautiful that her sister.

Ali is less intelligent than Mosharrof.

Superlative degree

There is no superlative form of this type of positive or comparative form.

Rule-3: Not as….as/than

Positive degree

Noun1 (subject) + verb (am/is/are etc.) + not + so/as + adjective/adverb + as + noun2.

He is not so good as his brother.

Meem is so/as beautiful as her sister.

Ali is as intelligent as Mosharrof.

Comparative degree

Noun2 + verb + comparative form of adjective/adverb + than + noun1.

His brother is better than he.

Her sister is more beautiful than Meem.

Mosharrof is more intelligent than Ali.

Superlative degree

There is no superlative form or this type of positive of comparative form.

Rule-4: Not as….as/than

Positive degree

Noun1 + (subject) + verb (am/is/are etc.) + not + so/as + adjective/adverb + as + noun2.

He is not so strong as his brother.

Meem is so/as beautiful as her sister.

Ali is as intelligent as Mosharrof.

Comparative degree

Noun2 + verb + more + positive form of adjective/adverb + than + noun1.

His brother is more strong than he.

Her sister is more beautiful than Meem.

Mosharrof is more intelligent than Ali.

Superlative degree

There is no superlative form of this type of positive or comparative form.

Rule-5: Sentence with “Not other (noun)/than any other/the + superlative degree”.

Positive degree

No other + noun1 + other words + verb (am/is/are etc.) + as positive form of adjective/adverb + as + noun2.

No other metal is as precious as diamond.

No other city is as populous as Dhaka.

No man is as faithful as Asad.

No animal is as faithful as dog.

Comparative degree

Noun2 + verb (am/is/are etc.) + comparative form of adjective/adverb + than any other + noun¬1 + other words.

Diamond is more precious than any other metals.

Dhaka is more populous than any other cities.

Asad is more faithful than any other men.

Dog is more faithful than any other animals.

Superlative degree

Noun2 + verb (am/is/are etc.) + the + superlative form of adjective/adverb + noun¬1 + other words.

Diamond is the most precious than any other metals.

Dhaka is the most populous than any other cities.

Asad is the most faithful than any other men.

Dog is the most faithful than any other animals.

Rule-6: Sentence with “No other (noun)/than all other/the + superlative degree”.

Positive degree

No other + noun1 + other words + verb(am/is/are etc.) + as positive form of adjective/adverb + as + noun¬2.

No other metal is as precious as diamond.

No other city is as populous as Dhaka.

No man is as faithful as Asad.

No animal is as faithful as dog.

Comparative degree

Noun2 + verb(am/is/are etc.) + comparative form of adjective/adverb + that all other + noun1 + other words.

Diamond is more precious than any other metals.

Dhaka is more populous than all other cities.

Asad is more faithful than all other men.

Dog is more faithful than all other animals.

Superlative degree

Noun2 + verb(am/is/are etc.) + the + superlative form of adjective/adverb + of all + noun1 + other words.

Diamond is the most precious of all metals.

Dhaka is the most populous of all cities.

Asad is the most faithful of all men.

Dog is the most faithful of all animals.

Rule-7: Sentence with “Very few/than most other/one of the + superlative degree.

Positive degree

Very few + noun1 + other words + verb (am/is/are etc.) + as positive form of adjective/adverb + as + noun2.

Very few writers are as famous as Humayun Azad.

Very few villages in our district are as big as Hoirpour.

Very few students in our college are as intelligent as Kamrul.

Comparative degree

Noun2 + verb (am/is/are etc.) + comparative form of adjective/adverb + than most other + noun1 + other words.

Humyun Azad is more famous than most other writers.

Horipur is bigger than most other villages in our district.

Kamrul is more intelligent than most other students in our college.

Superlative degree

Noun2 + verb (am/is/are etc.) + one of the + superlative form of adjective/adverb + noun1 + other words.

Humayun Azad is one of the most famous writers.

Horipur is one of the biggest villages in our district.

Kamrul is one of the intelligent most students in our college.

Rule-8: Sentence with “Few/than few other/one of the + superlative degree”.

Positive degree

Few + noun1 + other words + verb (am/is/are etc.) + as positive form of adjective/adverb + as + noun2.

Few writers are as famous as Humayun Azad.

Few villages in our district are as big as Horipur.

Few students in our college are as intelligent as Kamrul.

Comparative degree

Noun2 + verb (am/is/are etc.) + comparative form of adjective/adverb + than few other + noun1 + other words.

Humayun Azad is more famous than a few other writers.

Horipur is bigger than few other villages in our district.

Kamrul is more intelligent than few other students in our college.

Superlative degree

Noun2 + verb (am/is/are etc.) + one of the + superlative form of adjective/adverb + noun1 + other words.

Humyun Azad is one of the most famous writters.

Horipur is one of the biggest villages in our district.

Kamrul in one of the intelligent most students in our college.

Note: The rules mentioned above can be used like the following manners just inversing them.

Such as,

1. Positive to comparative and comparative to positive.

2. Positive to superlative and superlative to positive.

3. Comparative to superlative and superlative to positive.

Use regular verb with “no other/any other”.

Use plural verb with “few/very few/most other/all other/many other/some other/one of the”.